"Ancient Russian Costume"
Translation of chapter IV
translated by Sofya la Rus, Mka Lisa Kies
of Kolchin's Drevnaia Rus': Byt i kultura
Updated 4 February 2007
[Translator's Notes: This is one of my usual "literalist" translation. As you may note, many
words are transliterated (military style) in case there are any questions about the translation. The comments in parenthesis and quotation marks are from the original text. My comments are in brackets
The ancient Russian costume ensemble, consisting of sewn clothing, head dress and shoes, up to now has been covered inadequately in scientific literature. The extent of study of its parts is varied. Until recent times, in order to reconstruct clothing, researchers turned to frescoes, miniatures and memorial literature, relying on them as a primary source. (Artsikhovskij
A.B., 1945 p. 34; 1948 p. 234-262; 1969 p. 277-296; Levashova V. P. 1966 p. 112-119).
Such an approach was caused by the fragmentary evidence of details of clothes, their poor preservation in monuments of archeology. However its researchers repeatedly expressed the opinion that the costume represented on monuments of art of Ancient Rus is very conventional, subordinate to icon-painting stereotypes, and carries very little information of clothing actually existing in Rus. In the process they noted that, for exhaustive study of costume, it is essential to bring in the data of archeology. (Artsikhovskij A.B., 1948a p. 362; 1969 p. 192).
Already in the last century, specialists in the area of lifeways and history of Rus devoted special attention to the terminology of ancient clothing. They compared some forms of clothing with the costume of more ancient periods and with the national clothing of the 19th century. The comparative method was worked out, thanks to which it became possible to make broad ethno-cultural comparisons. (Olenin ?.N., 1832 p. 31; Zabelin I., 1843 #25, p. 319-323; #26 p. 327-333; #27. p. 341-344; 1862 and 1869; Prokhrov V.?., 1875; 1881). In 1877, came out a colored album, illustrating ancient Russian clothing, in which was brought in
the summary of knowledge, gathered by the whole galaxy scientists and artists of the 19th cent. (Strekalov S. 1877)
Such an approach to the study of ancient Russian clothing was caused by the level of archeological knowledge. As is known, excavations in area of Slavic archeology widely developed only in the second half of the 19th cent. They first produced a massive kurgan inventory from the 10-13th cent with significant fragments of clothing. However, the absence of methods of restoration and conservation led to great difficulty in work with the soft pieces of clothing. Archeological documentation suffered one general shortcoming: structural connections of details of the clothing in burials were communicated in reports not graphically, but verbally. This absence of drawings did not give a lasting idea of form of the details of clothing.
Researchers understood that materials from excavations allow one to more fully and precisely establish the lifeways of Slavs including their clothing, than from the fragmentary data of written sources, therefore lately they have been used only as auxiliary material. (Prokhorov V.A., 1881. p. 37).
To the end of the 19th century, native science made use of the significant collection of buried treasure described by the expert of Russian and Byzantine art, N.P. Kondakov (Kondakov N.P. 1896. T. 1). Possessing unusual erudition, he gave to the scientific revolution maximum comparative material for decoration known by buried treasure, just as for clothing known by frescoes (Kondakov N.P. 1888) and miniatures (Kondakov N.P. 1906). N.P. Kondakov attributed the majority of forms of head dress and clothing after the Mongol period to the epoch of Ancient Rus, thinking that they were borrowed from Byzantium (Ibid p. 87). He did not give decisive significance to the capability of existing converging forms of clothing under the influence of which the new imported forms could be adapted. Besides the origin of definite categories of items, N.P. Kondakov was interested in their purpose, construction and the distinctive features of clothing.
In distinction from historian-art critics of 19th to beginning of 20th cent, who were occupied in study of ancient Russian clothing mainly of the high levels of society, archeologists already at end of century were interested in the culture of wide levels of population. The first place in comprehension of kurgan materials belongs to A.A. Spitsyn, who singled out for the different Slavic tribes characteristics for their collection of items and temple rings, qualifying as ethnic signs (Spitsyn A.A., 1899, p. 301-340; 1895. p. 177-188).
Already in 19th century, in scientific literature was expressed supposition that in Slavic costume of 19th century was preserved the cut of more ancient clothing (Golovatskij Ya.F., 1868. p 4,5). One of the first works in ethnography which widely used data of archeology for history of clothing, could be considered the book of F. Volkov “Ukrainian people in their past and present” (Volkov Fl., 1916). Besides archeological material, the author included in the research terms from the chronicles, thus showing the existence of analogous names and forms of clothing in antiquity and in the 19th century.
After 1917, looking at peasant art of native form was decreased, but V.S. Voronov expressed the idea that peasant art contained a “series of successive layers”, coming from the time of pagan periods (Voronov V.S., 1924. p. 30).
B.A. Kuftin developing the ideas of V.S. Voronov, turned his attention on “archaisms” in Russian costume, which in his opinion could be understood and explained by the material of Ancient Rus. (Kuftin B.A. 1926, p 92)
At the same time, D.K. Zelenin formed his approach to research of women’s head dresses of the Eastern Slavs (Zelenin D.K., 1926, 1927. p. 303-556). The basis of his study became a retrospective method, which presupposed detailed classification of the material on head dress accumulated to that time. The author explained the presence of a general outline/pattern among all the diversity of headdresses by the existence of related forms already in ancient Rus and a common line of their development.
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Not less relevant in those years were the works of N.I. Lebedeva, describing and comparing national costume of Russians with costume of Belorussians and Ukrainians. (Lebedeva N.I. 1927). She defined the archaic lines of costume among southern Great-Russians. (Lebedeva N.I. 1929).
The development of excavations of ancient Russian cities widened the circle of archeological sources, and gave the capability to illuminate questions of ancient Russian clothing anew. Thus, B.A. Rybakov turned special attention on methods of wearing individual types of ornament – temple rings (Rybakov B.A. 1948, p 337-338), kolty (Rybakov B.A. 1948, p 316-317, 332-383; 1940, p. 251; 1949, p. 57-58.
Fig. 23, 25). He more than once returned in many works to the reconstruction of head dresses made from plaques [бляшек] in the form of “icon cases” [киотцы], known by buried treasure (Rybakov B.A. 1971, p. 35).
Researching Chernigov kurgans, B.A. Rybakov turned attention on age distinction of funeral inventory including clothing (Rybakov B.A. 1949, p. 19021, Fig. 4). This data and also information from the chronicles about what was buried in them in ancient times (Rybakov B.A. 1948, p 141), shed light on the essence of rites and character of this clothing and ornament found in burials.
G.F. Korzukhna analyzed all the known buried treasures and systematized them by chronological signs, that allowed her to separate out a stylistically unified attire from the ornaments they contained. In her work, G.F. Korzukhina also examined the question of the method of wearing the various ornaments for which she brought in the entire circle of sources, with special attention given to terminology. (Korzukhina G.F. 1954, p. 51-62). Characterizing the jewelry trade of the 13th cent., she, right after B.A. Rybakov, followed the development of its breadth in the common people’s environment, as expressed in the manufacture of inexpensive ornaments imitating the gold and silver ornaments of the nobility (Korzukhina G.F. 1950, p. 233).
A.B. Artsikhovskij maintained interest in ancient Russian clothing through the extent of all his scientific activities. In the work “Kurgans of the Vyatichi” (Artsikhovskij A.B. 1930) he developed the typology and chronology of the metal attire of Vyatichi [an ancient Slavic tribe], after he had repeatedly returned to the tribal attire of the Vyatichi (Artsikhovskij A.B. 1930, p 110; 1947, p 80-81). In every work, be it about work, conservation of clothing (Artsikhovskij A.B. 1945, p 34; 1948a, p234; 1969, p 277), or division by other theme (Artsikhovskij A.B. 1930, p 101; 1947, p 17-18), A.B. Artsikhovskij was essentially leading up to a totaling of archeological knowledge with maximum inclusion of written sources and bringing together the monuments of graphic art.
In recent years a new stage has been marked in the study of ancient Russian clothing connected with the constant replenishment of archeological knowledge and with the level of development of related historical disciplines. Special meaning is attached to the restoration of the relics of archeology which return material from excavations to their original appearance and carry diverse information about the technology of fabric, of particular features of leather, of methods of dyeing, of sewing, the character of cut, etc.
The great achievement of ethnographers of recent years is the publishing of a historical-ethnographic atlas, in which various types of clothing are traced on a map (Istoriko-etnograficheskij atlas, 1967, T.I.; 1970, T. II). Bringing together the written sources of clothing with inclusion of archeological material is summarized in the anthology “Ancient Clothing of People of Eastern Europe” (1986).
In the area of historical lexicology, terms are studied connected with topical group of words related to clothing, shoes and ornaments (Berkovich T.I. 1981; Lukina G.N. 1974, p 246-62; 1970 p 100-102, and others; Vakhros I.S. 1959). Archeologists have attempted to use finds of pieces of costumes for their re-creation, however even collars [vorotnik], wide collars [oplech’ya], cuffs [zarukavy], belts [poyas], ribbons [lenty], and such similar parts of clothing are preserved only in fragments. Only after the restoration work of the archeologists can they be used for reconstruction. It is logical to set forth the factual material for clothing of Ancient Russ in this order: first, fabric and details of costume, then its parts (headdress, dress, footwear), then – reconstruction of the costume as a whole.
Fabrics. The finds from the layers of ancient Russian cities, tombs and rural village burials show all the diverse fabrics of local manufacture, from which were sewn clothing. These were both woolen fabric, woven mainly from sheep wool, and fabric from plant fiber of various structures (linen, hemp). Among woolen and half-woolen fabrics are found checked and striped fabrics. On woolen fabrics are found embroidery, done with “branoj” [браной] technique. Known also are patterned fabrics. Among the usual finds for the 10-12th centuries appear patterned and un-patterned ribbons, braids [or card-woven bands? same word тесьма], laces and fringe from woolen yarn (Klejn V.K. 1926; Nakhlik A, 1963, p 228-313; Shmidt E.A. 1957, p 184-280; Levinson-Nechaeva M.N. 1959, p 9-37; Levashova V.P. 1966, p 112-119). A wide distribution had broadcloth [sukno] (Levashova V.P. 1966, p 114) and objects of felt [voilok] (Levashova V.P. 1959b p 52-4). Several fabrics were woven of wool of natural brown, black or other colors, others were dyed with such organic dyes as chervets [cochineal] and “chernil’nyye oreshki” [oak gall]. Also used in dyeing were mineral substances – ocher, red iron-ore [zheleznyak] and others. (Levashova V.P. 1959v p 96-102). Besides that, for sewing of clothing fine wool broadcloth [sukno] was imported from the countries of Western Europe (Nakhlik A. 1963, p270-274), and silk and brocaded fabrics came from the countries of the Mediterranean, Byzantium and the Middle East, and also gold-fabric ribbon [galloon?] (Klejn V.K. 1926, Rzhiga V.F. 1932, 1932, p 339-417; Fekhner M.V. 1971, p 207, 226, 227; 1980 p 124-129).
A special group was formed by fabrics with needlework, executed with metal threads (gold and silver) by ancient Russian mistresses [female masters]. According to written sources such work is known already in the 11th cent. In the monasteries/convents existed “schools”, and in the royal domain “home workshops” in which the technique of gold embroidery was trained (Novitskaya M.A. 1965, p26). It was determined that in various regions of Rus dominated fabrics with defined weave [переплетения, perepleteniya] of threads (Levinson-Nechaeva M.N, 1959 p21). Thus in kurgans of Viatich more often of all are found wool-blend and wool plaid fabrics (coarse) [pestryad’]. They were woven of wool threads dyed mainly in red, green, blue, yellow and black colors and also of threads of vegetable origin of white color. The pattern of the cell/cage [kletka] is various. Are met plaid fabrics with openwork bands, formed at the expense of pulled out paskonnykh [пасконных] threads (Levinson-Nechaeva M.N. 1959 p 25); plaid fabrics with openwork bands, formed during weaving. One example of such fabrics was embroidered with a fat needle [толстой иглой]. // The embroidery ornament is the meander. In the same kurgans are discovered smooth woolen cloths with tabby weave with embroidery made with an additional weft - "branoy" technique. [Sounds a bit like “brocaded”?] The preserved pattern was in the form of a chain of rhombs [diamond-shapes] of red color against the dark background. In the kurgans indicated are found many patterned bands, which were being used for finishing the clothing, belts, and for fastening of adornments. Furthermore, in them are found the remains of broadcloth [сукно] and diagonal cloth [диагональная ткань], under which in the burials were located tight-woven fabrics of tabby weave.
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In the Kharlapovskom tomb, where are buried Krivichi [people from an ancient Slavic tribe located around the headwaters of the Dvina, Dnepr and Volga Rivers, including modern cities of Polotsk, Smolensk], are found many cloths - 54 units. Among them, there is no checked cloth (only one fragment in the region of head-gear). As is known, in the various monuments of the Krivichi, the only fragments of checked cloth were found together with the bracelet-shaped temple rings. Nevertheless, it is possible to assert that these fabrics were essentially not used in the funeral clothing of this tomb. Significantly fewer in the Kharlapovskom tomb are woolen figured bands. Here, just as in the kurgans of the Vyatichey, are abundantly represented the woolen single-tone cloths of tabby weave. They are decorated with a geometric pattern, performed by "branoy" technique. Predominant are fabrics of twill interlacing, broadcloth and felt, under remains of which are found the tight-woven fabric of tabby weave.
Thus, in the fabrics of the Vyatichey and Krivichey are outlined some local differences. As we will see below, they supplement local differences in clothing and head-gear.
Head-gear. In the monuments of archaeology of the 10-13 cent. as represented in the burials and Old-Russian hoards [buried treasure], are predominantly female head-gear. Male head-gear was almost unknown. Recently, new information about them has been assembled by O.A. Brajchevskoj (Brajchevs'ka O.A. 1992)
In the female burials, head dresses are represented by fragments of textiles, which include woolen, and silk cloths and very rare cloth from threads of plant origin. There is also known felt and decayed remains of organic origin, which has defied identification (fur?). Frequently are also found twisted threads and fringe of wool; and also diverse bands: woolen, silk, golden-fabric. Besides the bands of textile, are found also metallic bands of silver, bronze, and alloys.
Among the metallic details from the head-gear is known a distinctive form of metallic plait [жгута] in the form of a hoop with the end flattened and twisted into a tube/roll. There are also found metallic plaques, beads [бусы], beads [бисер], pearls; and frequent details from birch bark, oak and leather.
An indispensable part of female head-gear, as is known, were temple ornaments. In certain cases the remains of hair survive, which tell about the hair-style.
All this material in the concrete archeological monuments comes across in specific combinations which characterize the special features of modeling and different methods of adorning head-gear. This work is summed up in the following elements: 1) the restoration of soiled details of head-gear, and the description of the material; 2) location of the details of head-gear as found in the burial, first and foremost, on the skull; 3) fixing/setting the structural elements of head-gear into a unified set; 4) systematization of materials from the burials into groups by integrating sets with recurring motifs, defining construction, special features of the included materials and their adornments, and also the methods of wearing.
And with all this, the only archaeological materials are the details from the otherwise unpreserved head-gear. In order to present entire forms, it remains to turn to the ancient monuments of graphic arts, the written sources, the materials of recent ethnography, and the data of lexicology. As a result of this complex method was created the typology of female head-gear, which was the basis of the construction. It consists of three types: type 1 - head-gear from a simple unpieced cloth, type 2 - complex head-gear which includes diverse details; type 3 - head-gear of banded construction.
Type 1. Includes kerchief-like and polotenchatye [полотенчатые, from polotentse, “towel”?] head-gear (table 66, 16-22). In the 11-14th cent. to designate these items, they used terms such as "plat" [плат], "pokrov" [покров], and "povoj" [повой]. They all designated pieces of fabric that covered, coiled around, or wound around something. In the Old-Russian language, they were also used to mean "head dress". The form of the head-gear depended on the form of the piece of cloth - "ubrus" is a term which in the dialects of the eastern Slavs of the 19-20th cent. designated the polotenchatyy headdress. In the Old-Russian language, the word "ubrus'" [убрусь] was used to designate the head-gear of both women and men (Berkovich T.A. 1981 p. 22, 59; 1967, 419-422; Sreznevskiy I.I. 1958, Vol. 2, p. 1001).
Head-gear of type 1 was made from different materials. Three subtypes are defined.
Subtype 1. Woolen and half-woolen head-gear. Woolen scarves/veils were set and investigated in the kurgans of the Vyatichi. Among them is the interesting cloth discovered in the female burial of the Bolkovskoy kurgan group of the Moscow region. This is half-woolen checked [клетчатая] cloth. The design of the cells/squares [клетки] is made with red, black and yellow threads. Furthermore, inside the cells were preserved the openwork strips, formed by the vanished [выпавших] threads of plant origin. The cloth was found in the temples under the seven-bladed temple rings and the lamellar grivnoy [grivna usually refers to a silver necklace resembling a celtic torque, but evidently not here]. The arrangement of the cloth in the area of the skull and chest indicates that it belongs to a scarf. Analogous cloths were discovered in the same kurgan group, in kurgans 31 and 33, and also in the kurgans in the conference [бесед] of the Tsaritsynskogo region of the Moscow area. The date of the described monuments is the beginning of the 12th to the first half of the 13th cent. (Ravdina T.V. 1968 p. 136-142, Fig. 1)
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In 12 burials of the kurgans of the Vologodskoi region were also discovered checked scarves [платки], from the half-woolen cloth of tabby weave (Saburova M.A. 1974 p. 94). It is interesting that in the 19th cent. in the Vologodskeye province, woman wore woolen and half-woolen/checked scarves, which were called "ponyavoy" - a term which in the 19th cent. designated a skirt [юбка] in southern Great Russia and okhaben' [охабень – an opashen-like overgarment] in the northern provinces of Russia (Dal’ V.I. 1956 Vol. 3 p. 286). As a rule, in the ancient written sources, "ponyava" indicates a cloth for the outer clothing with which it is possible to either wrap something or to cover something (PSRL of 1953 Vol. 6 p. 86; 1926 T. 1 Ill. 2 p. 466).
The woolen scarves of that same time, not just checked [клетчатые] ones, but also patterned ones, were found in the kurgans of the Bityagovskoy kurgan group of the Moskow region (Rozenfel'dt R.L. 1973b p. 192-199).
Are noted also the scarves/veils, embroidered with beads, plaques, and with trapezoid-form pendants, in Moscow, Smolensk and Vologodskoj regions (Saburova M.A. 1974 s. 94).
In the northwestern regions of Russia are frequently found woolen scarves decorated with bronze spirals and ringlets (FOGS 1896 tables, 16 Fig. 15, 16). These are the so-called "vilajne" [вилайнэ], which are found contiguous with the territory of the Baltic and Baltic-Finnish tribes regions. They are known there from the 7th cent. and exist in these regions up to 19 cent. (Zorina A.E. 1986 p. 178).
Subtype 2. Head-gear from paskonnykh [пасконных] threads. Into this subtype can be placed attire woven from threads of vegetable fiber. In the soil, they barely remain. Only sometimes are their remains discovered in the archeological monuments. Thus, in the Gomel region of Roslavl region in the kurgan group Vetochka 4 on the buried skull, under the semi-circular [семилучевыми, crescent - see Table 38,8] temple rings, under the plaques, and also on the right humeral bone were found the fragments of flaxen cloth of tabby weave [полняного переплетения]. The head-gear was decorated above the brow with a strip of plaques from tin-lead alloy of rhomboid [diamond] form [like Table 78,1?]. The date of the kurgan is the beginning of the 11th cent. (Solovyev G.F. 1967 p. 10-13; 1965 p. 153).
Better preserved was the cloth of vegetable fibers on the female skull in the burial of the end of the 12th cent., excavated in Minsk. This is light cloth of tabby weave - "ryadina", preserving the white color (Tarasenko V.R. 1950 s. 127-128; 1957 s. 229). Under it, the braids, laid around the head, showed through and a high birchbark "circle" (?) [кружок, the question mark is in the original text]. The ochel'e [forehead section] was decorated with a rectangular piece of silk cloth with embroidery. Here also was preserved the venok [garland] of flowers. [!] From analogous cloth was woven the polotentsi [literally, towels, also head scarves] especially for weddings and deaths in the 19-20 centuries. In the museum of Minsk is stored a polotentse - "sarpanok" - from paskonnykh [пасконных] threads. It has a very rare structure of tabby weave; its length is about 3 m. Similar polotentsi are known among all the eastern Slavs up to the 20th cent.
Subtype 3. Silk head-gear. In ancient burials sometimes remain the fragments of silk fabrics. Thus, in the Moscow Kremlin, in a burial of the 13th cent., is discovered rich head-gear, which included transparent silk cloth of the muslin [кисеи, thin, loosely woven cloth] type – fata [veil] (Shelyanuna N.S. 1973 s. 58).
The remains of cloths from the fata are known both from burials and from the ancient Russian hoards of the 12-13th cent. (Fekhner M.T. 1974 s. 69). It is made from transparent light cloth of tabby weave, decorated with a woven pattern, with gold embroidery (Mikhajlovsk treasure of 1903), sewn-on golden-fabric bands (burial from Smolensk 12 cent. in the church of Ioanna Bogoslova; excavations of I.I. Khozerova in 1924) (table 66, 11). They usually dyed them red and rose in color.
The term "fata" came from the countries of the east, where it designated a special form of silk cloth (Berkovich T.L. 1981 p. 114). The Centers for the production of thin covers were Iranian cities (Pigulevskaya N. 1956 s. 241). The "fata" is known both in the Russian literary language and in the dialects of the 19-20th centuries. This word designated the well-dressed women’s headcovers [покрывала], the wedding polotentse, which were made from light fabrics.
Type 2. In type 2 is placed complex head-gear, which consists of a large number of parts. Obviously, they were not only pieced, but also sewn. The state of the mastery of material allows the definition of three subtypes of this complex head-gear.
Subtype 1. Sewn head-gear of rigid construction. These are found in the kurgans of the Vyatichey. Thus, in the burial of the kurgan of the Besedskoy kurgan group on a female skull, under the temple rings, was preserved a structurally integral fragment of head-gear. It consisted of a piece of bast [inner layer of bark] (with a size of 7.5 X of 3.5 cm), on which was firmly held a woolen patterned band with a length of 5 cm and a width of 2.3 cm. Between the bast and the band were passed strands from twisted woolen threads. On the strands was preserved oxide from the metal of the temple rings, and between the band and the bast was a fragment of woolen cloth with tabby weave with a pattern made by the "branoy" technique. The cloth is of brown color, ornamented with red woolen threads making the shape of diamonds, placed in a checkerboard formation. Here was found a fragment of the same cloth with "branym" ornament, with a size of 10 X 14 cm. It is cut out in the form of triangle with rounded corners. Obviously, here was female head-gear on a rigid foundation with a cover, sewn from cloth. The headdress was sheathed along the ochel'yu [forehead piece] with patterned bands, under which were passed the woolen cords, to which were fastened the temple rings. The "curls" formed from the woolen threads seemingly substituted for the hair hidden under the head-gear. Analogous head-gear is found in kurgan 28 of the Volkovskoy kurgan group. It is made from dark woolen cloth of tabby weave with the "branym" ornament in the form of diamonds and slanting crosses [saltire or St.Andrew crosses] of red color. The possible form of head-gear can be judged from the height of the preserved bast foundation. Judging by the images of head-gear on the works of the small plates of the 13-14th cent. the silhouette rose above the brow and had a slightly widening or rounded form (Saburova M.A. 1973 p. 32-35) (table 66, 2).
Subtype 2. Composite head-gear of soft construction. [Perhaps this category includes the povoinik and volosnik caps?] As an example of head-gear from the large number of independent parts of soft construction, it is possible to give archaeological headdresses with fringe from the kurgans of the Vyatichey. They are found in five kurgans of the Moscow region (Saburova M.A. 1976a p. 127-132). Summarizing the data from the excavated complexes, it is possible to present part of these headdresses. This is fringe from woolen twisted threads with a length of 20 cm, which was fastened on the band; the woolen figured bands were located on the forehead and tied around the head; the fragments of fabrics (flax, fur, wool blend), found on the skull (under the band, the fringe and above the band). The nature of the included materials and the structural elements of these items are closest of all to the head-gear of southern Great Russians of the beginning of the 20th cent. - to "uvivkam" [увивкам] and "mokhram" [мохрам]. For them was typical the presence of different independent parts, which were made from different fabrics, and the fringe, which was fastened to the band. The is an interesting similarity between the decoration on the band from the archaelogical complex with that on the band of the Tambovo headdress with uvivkoj - slanting crosses [St. Andrews cross or saltire], and rhomboids (table 66, 3). Youth wore such headdresses into the 19-20th centuries. They are included in the complex of clothing with the panevoj [паневой].
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Subtype 3. Head-gear in the form of "kokoshkhiki", decorated with plaques. Among the complex head-gear, are known the headdresses, consisting of fabric, a rigid foundation (birch bark, bast) and tin-lead plaques/plates. Their prevalent form was a high head-dress, having the form of a "halo" [нимба] – a kokoshnik with a rounded top. It was covered to the top with plaques. Such head-gear are found in the Smolenskaya region (Savin N.I. 1930 T 2 p. 225-226; Schmidt E.A. 1957 p. 251) and in the Vologodskaya region (Saburova M.A. 1974 p. 89).
Head-gear of this form was worn in the central and northern regions of Russia into the 19-20th centuries. In the ethnographical museum of Petersburg it is possible to see the birchbark foundation of a similar kokoshnik. It comes from the Vologodskeye province.
In the Kharlapovskom tomb of the Smolenskaya region [Krivichi tribe?] in the construction of these kokoshniks included the bracelet-shaped temple rings, which were fastened or superimposed on the birch bark circle. The diameter of the birch bark circles repeats the diameter of the rings. As investigation showed, on the edge of the birch bark circle were stitched holes from punctures of needle, since they were faced with woolen cloth of red color. The rings were attached to the head-gear with the aid of the leather straps. It is possible that the birch bark circles were sewn to the rings or simply "tucked in" under the head-gear, as known based on materials of recent ethnography (Grankova N.P. 1955 p. 26,27).
The materials found in Kharlapove make it possible to suggest that along both sides of female head-gear were worn not simply the rings, but also flaps/blades/paddles [лопасти] of rounded form also known based on materials of ethnographies of the 19-20th centuries. (Ibid p. 24-27). In the Museum of Folk Art of Moscow is stored the head-gear "horned krichka" [кричка рогатая]. On it, along the sides of the ochel'ya, round flaps are sewn on the rigid foundation. Their diameter is 7.5 cm. They are decorated with beads, plaques and united into one composition with the ochel'em by the band, sewn on around the blades and the brow. To us unknown, whether the head-gear of Kharlapova described above was one-piece or composite. One can only assume that they could have included the temple pendants, reinforced with the flaps [лопастях] and thrown across the top of the head with the aid of straps. Date of the Kharlapovskogo tomb - 11-13th centuries.
Type 3 forms the head-gear of band construction. These are round in the form of headdresses made from a strip of cloth, metal, plaques and other materials, which, as the simplest diadems - "venki", secured the hair.
The word "ven'" [венъ] and derivatives of it "venok" [венок], "corona" [венец], "halo" [венчик] comes from the praslavyanskogo [proto-Slavic?] verb "to twist" [вить]. As suggested by T.A. Berkovich, in the Old-Russian language the word "venok" [венок] initially indicated the head-gear of a girl (Berkovich T.L. 1981 p. 15).
Word "venets" [венец, corona] had wider meaning, designating also the headdress, which was put on with the coronation to the tsarstvo [royal throne] and marriage (Ibid p. 10-20). The word "venets" translated the ancient Greek word "diadem" - head band. Furthermore, the "venets" was the name for the maidenly head-gear of different forms, most frequently on a rigid foundation, in the tsarist way of life of the 15-16 centuries. (Zavelin I. 1901 p. 350; spiritual documents [Духовные грамоты, wills], gr. 1486), and then in the people’s environment in the 18-20th centuries. (Dal’ Vl, 1863-1866. Vol. 1 p. 292; Filin F.M. 1965-1980. Ill. 4. p. 111-112; Opredelitel' 1971 p. 63, 192).
In the work of V.P. Levashova the different versions of the head-gear of band/ribbon construction are put in order. She defined them by the material, drawn from the entire variety of the forms of 10-13 centuries, characteristic for the Slavic culture of ancient Russia (Levashova V.P. 1968 s. 91-97)
Findings of the recent years have considerably enriched our ideas in this field. At present it is possible to isolate not less than eight subtypes of the head-gear of band construction based on the material from which they are made.
Subtype 1 is made up of ventsy in the form of metallic bands. Lamellar venchiki [венчики, halos] in the form of metallic bands are known in the entire territory of ancient Russia. Some of the finds, as wrote V.P. Levashova, have a rigid foundation or "are sewn on the band" (Ibid. p. 92; Uvarov A.S. 1872 p. 160). Thus, in the Kalinin district was discovered a silver venchik in the form of a band with holes at the ends. Under it went the band of birch bark (Uspenski A.B. 1973 p. 180) (table 66, 5). In combination with the metallic venchiki in the Kurskaya district are found ventsy of special form in the form of a metal plait with a flattened end (Sedob V.V. 1982 p. 212. Table 38). The headdress is found together with the bracelet-shaped temple rings and wire pins [шпильки] in the form of the extended finger-ring-shaped [перстневидный] rings [кольци], which attached temple rings to the hair. Date of the burial – end of the 11th cent. Woven bands were made from brocade [парчи] (table 66, 1, 2, 12). These can be united into subtype 2. Silk bands (subtype 3) were decorated with embroidery (Fechner M.T. 1973 p. 218. Fig. 1g) and with embossed plaques from precious metals (Fechner M.B. 1974 p. 647, 48). They are known both in the rural kurgans and in the rich urban tombs and the hoards (Pasternak Ya.Kh. of 1944 p. 125) (tabl. 66, 3, 4). Banded [ленточные] homespun headdresses were made also from vegetable fiber (subtype 4) and wool (subtype 5) (table 66, 3, 4). Analogous bands were manufactured also in the 19 cent. in the Russian peasant way of life. They were decorated with geometric ornament (Levinson-Nechaeva M.N. 1959 p. 32, 33, Fig. 12).
In the burials are found also bands [ленты], constructed/pieced and sewn of cloth (subtype 6). Thus, in the kurgan near s. [northern?] Ushmary of the Moscow region was found sewn head-gear (excavations of M.E. Foss in 1924; Levinson -Nechaeva M.N. 1959 p. 27, 31. Fig. 11) strips of cloth with tucked under and hemmed edges on a lining. The woolen cloth was dark-blue in color, the ornament was a pattern of red and yellow color. Next to it were found seven-bladed temple rings and strands of the long dissolved hair, which indicates, most likely, that the head-gear belonged to girl. Date of kurgan – 12th cent.
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A distinctive band [повязка], sewn from different materials, was also found in the Podolskiy region of the Moscow are (excavations A.A. Yushko in 1965 Report IA, R-1, issue # 3058). It consisted of woolen ribbon/band, on which in the area of the ochel'ya were sewn silk ribbons, with a size of 1.5 X of 2 cm, decorated with two hemisphere-shaped plaques of billon [a silver/copper alloy]. Along the sides of face were located seven-bladed temple rings. Under them was preserved the hair-do in the form of curls, laid in loops at the temple. Date of the kurgan – 12th cent. [Table 76, 3 and 77, 7]
Banded [ленточные] head-gear from plaques make up subtype 7. They are decorated with a number of plaques [бляшек], plates [пластин]. In burials they are found on the frontal bones of the skull (Spitsyn A.A. 1899 p. 306. Fig. 16)
In the Old-Russian treasure hoards are known the most luxurious models of this kind of attire (Kondakov N.P. 1896 s. 138, 139, 145; Belyashevskiy N.F. 1901 p. 150). They consist of nine gold plates, seven of which are rectangular in form with a fin-shaped [килевидным] completion (in the form of "kiottsev") [literally, icon case?], and two end plates of trapezoid form, which narrow to the outer ends. Between them the platelets were connected by threads, which penetrated holes on the sides of the plates. Head-gear was presented as a diadem with an ochel'e made from plates, which was tied on the back of the head by ribbon (Makarov T.I. 1975 p. 44). They were decorated with enamel, pearls, and pendants, and they were included in the composition of ritual attire of the ancient-Russian princesses (Rybakov B.A. 1970 p. 36-38). [Table 73, 1, 3 and Table 45, 11, 12]
In the urban monuments are known analogous forms of head-gear, but more modest. Thus, in the hiding-place under the ruins of Desyatinnoj church in Kiev were found plaques from the diadems: rounded with inserts, from small half-circle-shaped platelets, sewn in two rows, etc. They were preserved sewn on a ribbon of cloth (table 66, 8). The number of plaques on similar diadems is usually an odd number, since at the foundation of these diadems lies an original form that has a srednik –a central figure. The described diadems belonged to rich townspeople, who were killed in Kiev, during the invasion of Tatars in 1237 (Karger M.K. 1958 p. 502; 1941 p. 79).
Plaques from analogous diadems are also known in the kurgans. They are made from embossed or gilded silver and different alloys. Thus, in the Gomel region of BSSR a band of a number of tin-lead plaques was found together with a type 1 head dress. In the Novgorod region of the Chernovskeyeo area in a kurgan near d. Khreplya (excavations of A.B.Artsikhovskoj in 1929 and 1930) was found a venchik of plaques, decorated with ribbed wheels. Plaques in a similar form to that venchik were found in the territory of ancient Novogrudka (Pavlov K.V. 1967 p. 37 Fig. 10). They are known also in the kurgans of the former Pskov province, in the rock graves of the Lidskoj district of the Vilenskeye province (Spitsyn A.A. 1899 p. 306 Fig. 16), and are found also on the territory of the former Latvian SSR (Mugurevich 3 1972 p. 389). E. Mugurevich considers that this type of head-gear arrived in the north from the territory of ancient Russia. A venchik with a row of sewed-on enameled plaques is only found one time - in kurgan 1 of the former Kostromskoye province, in the Neryakhotskom district (Nefedov F.D. 1899 p. 243. Table 6. Fig. 42) (table 66, 10), it was sewn on birch bark.
Into subtype 8 are placed head-gear in the form of venets [венец, corona] on a birch bark or bast foundation, decorated with beads (Saburova M.A. 1975 p. 19-20) (Table 66, 9). E.N. Kletnovoy excavated a burial in the Smolenskaya region near d. Khozhayevo, in which together with the bracelet-shaped temple rings revealed this attire. She writes that on the skull was located "the strip of birch bark, from which, just as in the venchik, was made the foundation of the headdress and on it were threaded in a pattern gilded glass beads, laid horizontally and intersected by olive-shaped carnelian beads [пронизка], laid vertically" (Kletnova E.N. 1910 p. 10). Date of barrow - 11th to beginning of 12th cent.
Besides the types of head-gear described above in the monuments of the 10-13th centuries, are found also their separate details, which tell about their constructions, about the hair-styles and special features of their adornment. The most widespread and frequently found detail of head-gear can be considered the ochel'ya [очелья, forehead decoration]. In essence, this is an independent design detail, and for its adornment they used all possible technical methods known in sewing and jewelry arts. For example, by the imprints of the plaques on a female skull, one can present an ochel'e, discovered in an burial of Boriso-Glebskoj cathedral in Novgorod (Strokov A.A. 1945 p. 73. Fig. 32) (Table 66, 14; reconstruction of A.A. Strokov). It was rectangular in form but slightly higher in the center top. The entire surface of the ochel'ya is decorated with plaques. In their composition are included embossed plaques of gilt silver of different forms and silver filigree. The same form of ochel'ya gives evidence that it was sewn on a solid foundation. Together with the analogous platelets are found the remainders of silk fabric - "gold lustrous brocade cloth" (Strokov A.A. 1945 p. 70), which indicates these ocheliy are part of expensive silk attire, including gold threads. These burials are placed at the end of the 12th cent.
In the Moscow region is discovered an ochel'e on a rigid foundation (excavations by M.G. Rabinovich in 1956 near d. Zveskdochka) (table 66, 13). It is made from silk cloth of twill weave. On the cloth executed in gold thread is embroidery in the form of trees [tree of life motif], inscribed in arches. The embroidery is edged by golden fabric bands, which define it as a distinctive decorative detail of the headdress. Date of burial – 12th cent.
A rich ochel'e from a headdress was found in the burial under the Uspenski cathedral in the Moscow Kremlin (Shelyapina N.S. 1973 p. 57, 58. Fig. 4) It consisted of silk ribbons, embroidered with gold and silk thread. Furthermore, the ochel'e was decorated with a pearl obniz'yu [edge? String around?] a "srednik" [central figure] in the form of drobnitsy (?) [question mark from original text, дробницы, round or tear-drop shaped pendant] of rectangular form (it was not preserved) (table 66, 15). It is found together with silk head-gear – a volosnik [net cap], and a fata [veil]. Date of burial - beginning 13th cent.
The document #429 [birchbark letter] was found in the excavations in Novgorod in 1965. According to paleographic data, it relates to the 12th cent. (Yanin V.L., Zaliznyak A.A. 1986 p. 207, 208). In it is indicated an inventory of clothing and "some female head-gear (three) with edging, decorated with ribbons (or: from ribbons, many-colored), and ochel'em... ". The latter is especially important, since has a direct relationship to the same detail of head-gear discovered in archeological monuments of pre-Mongol Russia. As is known, in the 19th cent. this term, preserving the meaning of the front section of the female head-gear, in some provinces shifted to mean the whole head-dress (Dal’ Vl. 1956 Vol. 4 p. 587).
Together with the temple rings are frequently found in the burials the fragments of ribbons/bands, fabrics, and sometimes also the details of the hair-dos, which also give information about the wearing of temple rings.
Thus, based on materials of the Bologodskoj expedition it was possible to trace three methods of the wearing of temple rings: 1) intertwined with a plait from the hair at the level of temple and ear; 2) passed through the cloth of the head dress; 3) in the ears (Saburova M.A. 1974 p. 86-89 Fig. 1). There are also known cases of temple rings passed through the golden-fabric band [gallloon?] at the level of temples. A.V. Artsikhovskij speaks about the wearing of temple rings passed through a head band, made from leather or from fabric (Artsikhovskij A.V. 1930 p. 46).
Furthermore, temple rings were fastened to leather straps. These are found everywhere. The straps were attached to the head-gear in various ways. One of the widespread methods - a leather or cloth band folded in half with the temple rings passed through. They were put through the band so that one ring was located below another, and lowest was simply hung on the ribbon. This method is traced in Belorussia in the territory of the Radimichey (Saburova M.A. 1975 p. 18-19. Fig. 1, 2). Thus were semi-circular temple rings fastened at the temples to head-gear with a rigid foundation. An analogous method was also established in the Moscow region [Viatichi tribe]. In kurgan 12 in d. Mar'in of the Podolskiy region on the skull of a female burial was found a band of cloth in combination with seven-bladed temple rings (excavations of A.A.Yushko in 1972 archive IA.D. 5077, 5077a, p. 56, 57). In the process of restoration were discovered the imprints of the seven-bladed rings on the band and the holes from the punctures by the arcs of the rings, that also made it possible to establish this method of wearing. The temple rings, passed through the band, which kept the hair under it, fastening the hair-do. In this burial, obviously, the hair was loose. [Table 76, 3 and 77, 1 and 78, 2]
Under the temple rings are frequently found details of the hair-do in the form of loops of hair, hanging downward at the temple. They seemingly lay under the temple rings. Loop-curls [петлилоконы – petlilokony] at the temple are usually encountered in female burials together with the seven-bladed temple rings. They created padding between the temple and the rings, combining utilitarian and aesthetic functions (Saburova M.A. 1974 p. 91, 92. Fig. 4)
As can be seen from that presented above, the methods of the wearing of temporal rings were various.
Besides the temple rings, in the urban environment and the environment of the higher levels of society, were worn all possible ryasna [рясна] - long suspensions from kolodochek [колодочек - literally, little logs], chains and their links/parts. From them, the different pendants were hung: kolty, plaques [and temple rings]. Usually they were attached to the head-gear with finger-ring-shaped temple rings, which had one end bent into a spiral. Being punctured through the head-gear, the spiral end of the ring held the pendants in the place that the head-gear was punctured. Ryasna, just as temple rings, were distinguished by a wide variety of forms and fastenings on the head-gear. [Table 51, 13 & 23]
In the cemetery of Suzdal of the 11-12th centuries are found ryasna in the form of the finger-ring-shaped rings linked together. Three-bead temple rings were suspended from them. Such ryasna are found in the burials of girls. For girls these rings were twined in a braid; the older women usually wore one ring at the level of ear (Saburova M.A. Sedova M.T. 1984). [Table 75, 10 & 11]
Generally headdresses of the described types rarely appeared in "pure" form in life: more frequently they combined headdresses of different types. Such complex composite headdresses were the result of combining different forms, which were worn at different ages. For this very reason, women’s head-gear included in its composition the maidenly venchiki. Recent observation confirms the idea of D.K. Zelenin that the women’s head-gear was a complicated maidenly headdress (Zelenin D.K. 1926 p. 312). At the same time, the head-gear of a girl could include the details of the women’s attire: a rigid foundation, and an ochel'e with temple ornaments. Complex head-dresses were sewn. Possibly, the term "ush'v'" [ушьвь] reflects some form of this attire. The girl’s headdress of band construction was used with various headdresses of the 1st and 2nd types [kerchief and complex types, respectively]. In a miniature of the Radzivillovskoj chronicle it is possible to see a woman in a plat [плат, kerchief/veil], tied above with ribbon (photomechanical reproduction of the Radzivillovskoy or Koenigsberg chronicle, 1902 p. 33).
Venchiki [type 3 headdress] and ochel'ya were also included in head-gear of the 1st [kerchief-like] and 2nd [complex] types. Thus, on a 14th cent. icon with the image of St. Barbara it is possible to see an ubrus with an ochel'em (table 66, 22), and on the 14th cent. icon of Paraskeva with her Life – a plat [kerchief] and a diadem with srednik (table 66, 20). In the production of the fine plates of the 13-14th centuries are shown the wives-mironositsy [жены-мироносицы] in head-dresses with defined ochel'em (Table 66, 18, 19, 21).
The aforesaid does not refute the proposed principles of the classification of head-gear, but clearly gives evidence of the united system of their design.
Details of the adornment of Old-Russian clothing. Clothing, just as head-gear, remains whole extremely rarely. Archaeologists find their only details. Let us begin with them.
1. Collars [vorotniki]. In the results of the excavations of cemetery of the city of Suzdal were investigated the details of clothing, belonging to collars. They are found in the burials of the end of the 11th to the middle of the 12th cent. (Saburova M.A. 1976 p. 226-229; Saburova M.A. Sedov M.B. 1984 p. 122-126). The largest group belongs to standing collars with the opening to the left (Table 67, 8, 9, 14-16, 20, 21), fewer are collars in the form of square (table 67, 17), one collar in the form of a trapezoid (table 67, 22), one rounded form, belonging to the so-called "golosheyke" [from голая шея, bare neck?]. It is interesting that almost in all burials the studs of the fastening were located to the left of the necks, including in the burials where the remains of the collars themselves are not found. Exceptions are rare (table 67, 22).
The details of Suzdal collars are made from Byzantine silk fabric. They are decorated with golden fabric bands [galloon?], and also with embroidery with silk and gold threads, one collar is decorated with pearl obniz'yu [обнизью, edging] – the work of Old-Russian mistresses [female masters, мастериц].
[2.] For the standing collars [stoyachiye vorotniki] are characteristic the presence of a rigid foundation (birch bark, leather), an ornamental strip on the top of the collar and an opening to the left. Their height is 2.5-4 cm. The bottom edge of all the enumerated forms of collars is punctured by needle - traces of fastening to the clothing. The presence of fragments of cloth on the wrong side of the collars make it possible to determine that the clothing itself was both of threads of vegetable fiber and of silk. All the forms of collars found in Suzdal, are known in the traditional Russian clothing of the 19-20th cent. and they are characteristic for shirts of different cut. Bringing in the shirts of 19-20 centuries as analogies made it possible to identify the details of standing collars from the burials in comparison with the standing collars of men’s blouses [косоворотка], and collars in the form of squares and trapezoids in comparison with the adornments on some Russians’ wedding shirts (Molotov L.N. Sosnin 1984 p. 39. Ill. 62, 184), and also gives evidence to transfer the discovered details to the adornments of shirts.
The collars of men’s blouses of the 19-20th centuries, just as our collars, are standing with a height of 2.5-3 cm. They are decorated with diverse embroidery and the recent fastening of factory-made buttons are analogous with the ancient closures in the form of metallic ovoid shank buttons, and, as on the Suzdal collars, on the right side of the collar of is sewn the button, and on the left – the thread loop (GIM Inv. # 77647, B476'). In recent shirts, collars in the form of square and trapezoid, just as on the ancient shirts, are decorated with embroidery and sheathed by ribbon, folded at right angle along the sides of the neck. It has a slit to the left, descending along the left side of collar. In such shirts, fastenings were of various types: on shank buttons and on ribbons (Molotova L.N. Sosnina N.N. 1984. Fig. 63, 184).
In the archaeological monuments of ancient Russia, the collars of forms described above are widespread. Standing collars are found both in the women’s and in the men’s burials, while collars in the form of squares - are more frequent in the men’s burials.
Thus, in Ivanovkoj province, the collars from the golden-fabric bands [galloon?] which had the square form with the slit/opening to the left were discovered in the men’s burials (table 67, 5) (excavations of K.I.Komarova in 1975). Trapezoid-form collars of the golden-fabric bands were established in old Ryazan (excavations of V.P. ?arkevicha in 1977). All the same, standing collars with the opening to the left are predominant in the monuments of pre-Mongol Russia (table 67, 6, 7, 18, 19). They are found everywhere in the strata of Old-Russian cities (in old Rus, in old Ryazan, in Smolensk). They are known also in the treasure hoards (Mikhajlovsk hoard of 1903 in Kiev (Fekhner M.T. 1974 p. 68, example 6; Gushin A.S. 1936 p. 29 and so forth.) Some of the collars reach a height of 7-7.5 cm. Besides the embroidery, they are decorated with pearls and plaques.
Such a wide distribution of standing collars with openings to the left demonstrates the predominance of clothing with the fastening to the left side and its existence in various levels of society. [Note that the rubakha, according to Rabinovich, most commonly opens in the middle front.]
As is known, double-breasted [двубортная] clothing is characteristic for the Russian national costume. In the work of T.S. Maslovoj it is suggested that the wide distribution of double-breasted clothing and the men’s blouse [косоворотки] occurred simultaneously (Maslova G.S. 1956 p. 581, 702). Double-breasted clothing can be seen in the miniatures of the Radzivilliovskoy chronicle. Thus, in the miniature connected with the founding of Kiev, on two figures are shown long outer clothing with the zapakh [upper flap] on the left side (Radzivillovskaya or Kenigsvergskaya chronicle of 1902, sheet 4). Obviously, the high collars (more than 4 cm high), sewn on birch bark and skin, with the opening to the left, belonged to the upper double-breasted clothing [i.e. not the rubakha].
[3.] Ozherl'ya (standing ozherelki) represented neck adornments, similar to the collars described above. They are sewn on to cloth and frequently underlaid with birch bark or leather. They were not sewn onto the clothing. Usually the entire surface of the ozherlya was covered with embroidery, ornament or golden-fabric ribbon, and also rows of plaques and kolodochki [little logs]. Plaques and kolodochki were edged with pearls or beads. Inside the plaques are inserts of stones and colored glass. In contrast to the collars [the vorotniki discussed above], the ornamental strip decorated the not-sewn-on ozherlya also from below (Fechner M.T. 1974 p. 68. Example 3). Judging by the images on the Old-Russian frescoes, standing necklaces were included in the complex of the ceremonial clothing of the upper layers of society. Thus, on a 12th century fresco in the Kirillovskoy church of Kiev is depicted St Evfrosin'ya in rich clothing, embroidered with platelets, with oplech'e [wide collar, see below] and standing ozherlya. The latter is differentiated from our ozherelki in the fact that the fastening of the stoechka [стоечке, literally, stand] was located in the center of the collar [rather than to the left].
Both ozherelki and the plaques from them are known not only in the complexes of rich burials and treasure hoards, but also in the layers of Old-Russian cities, and also in rural kurgans. In 12-13 centuries they are widely extended throughout the entire territory of Russia, including the outlying lands (Saburova M.A. 1976 p. 229).
In the Russian folk costume of the 19-20th centuries were widely disseminated neck adornments in the form of stoyechki [стоечки, standing collars], which were being made on a rigid foundation, decorated with pearls, beads, embroidery and rows of plaques (Molotov L.N. Sosnina N.N. 1984. Ill. 59, 171, 172).
[4.] Ozherl’ye-oplechye are on top of ceremonial dress and made of cloth with adornments. In the literature it is still called a barma. (Korzukhina G.F. 1954 p. 56). Fragments from similar oplech'ya, decorated on the chest with silk gold fabric, golden-fabric bands [galloon?] and metallic plaques with insets of glass and carnelian, were discovered in Chernigov near the foundation of the 12 cent. church of St. Mikhail. The hem of this dress was also decorated with plaques (report of Chernigov scientific commission of 1910 p. 11). The image of a dress with a similar oplech'em can be seen on the frescoes of Kiev’s Sofia cathedral (Lazarev V.N. 1970 p. 38, 39) and on the above-indicated 12 cent. fresco of Kirillovskoy church in Kiev. Such oplech'ya decorated both women's and men’s dress (Ibid. p. 47-49). Remains of ozherelij are found not only in the ancient tombs, but also in the rural kurgans. In contrast to the magnificent oplechiy known, these represented breast adornments of inexpensive silk cloth with embroidery and they finished the top of clothing that was obviously sewn from homespun fabric (Fekhner M.T. 1971 p. 223). Thus, in Moscow region (Domodedoj region) in the female burial of kurgan 5 near d. Novlenskoye in 1969 was discovered a fragment of silk cloth. It lay on the chest. At the collar [neck opening] the fabric was sheathed with a golden-fabric band [galloon?]. On the cloth was preserved embroidery of gold thread in the form of cherekh-petalled [cherekh probably supposed to be chetyre, or four] rosette. Inside the petals of the rosettes are sewn embossed plaques from gilt silver. Plaques stamped into a triangular form are inverted in the center of the rosettes. On them were three holes for the sewing to the cloth. Date of the burial – 12th cent. [Table 77, 8]
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One additional ozherlya was found near the Pushkin railroad station in the Moscow region in 1925 (Fekhner M.T. 1976 s. 224). The ozherlya was made up of several fragments of silk. Its separate fragments are put together into a rectangular piece of cloth. It was sheathed by golden-fabric ribbons [galloon?] along all sides. Sewing is made gold and silk threads "into prikrep" [в прикреп]. The ornament of embroidery represented four trees inscribed into round medallions (table 67, 4). This is, more likely, a chest ornament, a so-called "voshva" [вошва]. Analogous ozherl’ya are known also in several burials of the Moscow, Ivanovo and Vladimir provinces (Fechner M.T. 1973 p. 219 # 7, 2, 8). They are known in both women’s and men’s burials.
Opyast'ya (cuff of sleeve, zarukav'e), poruchi are known as the name of opyastij in the clothing of clergymen. Finds of the adornments of sleeves, opyastij, in the Old-Russian monuments are extremely rare.
A well-preserved opyast'e is found in the tomb of Prince Vladimir Yaroslavich, dead in 1052 (Ryabov M.P. 1969 p. 130). The opyast'e is a rectangular piece of fabric with a length of 23 cm and a width of 4.5 cm. Two buttons are sewn on one of the short sides, on the other - thread loops. The distance between them is 20 cm. The red cloth is satin weave. Gold embroidery is located on it. Ornament consists of a band of krinov [fleur-de-lis type motif], inscribed into heart-shaped figures, between which are stitched sprouts, folded at the base with triangular expansions in their upper part (table 67, 3).
From the 12th cent. were preserved the famous poruchi in the form of trapezoids, belonging to Varlam Khutynskiy. On them were preserved figural/facial and ornamental sewing with gold and silk thread, and also pearl obniz' [edging? Outline?] (Yakunina L.I. 1955 p. 35. Fig. 13)
Finds of opyastiy in [rural] kurgans are almost unknown. M.T. Fekhner reports only about one sleeve decoration from the meeting GIM. It was preserved on the right of forearm of a burial, found in the Moscow region (Fekhner M.T. 1971 p. 219). It is decorated with golden-fabric ribbon [galloon?]. The absence of opyastiy in the kurgan burials is evidence that the expensive imported fabrics and ribbons were not sewn on opyastiya of burial clothing - they were decorated only with the collar [ворот]. [I'm noticing a preponderance of metallic ornament in this text - perhaps due to the fact that non-metallic ornaments were not as well preserved?]
Belt. In the wealthy burials of pre-Mongol Russia, belts are repeatedly found. V.V. Khvojko reports about the findings in the burials of the Middle Dnepr Region (in Sharkakh, in Belgorodke) of belts of silk with Byzantine ornament (Khvoyko V.V. 1913 p. 55, 83). Some belts had gold-plated silver plaques (Khvoyko V.V. 1905 p. 101). Finds of the silk belts, decorated with the gold-plated plaques, are also known by the excavations of L.K. Ivanovskij in the former Petersburg province (Spitsyn A.A. 1896 p. 159 Vol. 16, 3), and also in the excavations of D.Ya Samokvasov in the former Kiev province - on the Royal Hill. On the belt are gold-plated silver plaques, analogous to those found on the Rajkovetskoj fortification (Goncharov V.G. 1950 Vol. 10, 11). They are known, also, in the treasure hoards. Thus, in the old-Ryazansk hoard of 1887 was discovered a silk ribbon, covered with a row of the same plaques, edged [obnizannyj] with beads (Gushchin A.S. 1936. p. 78-80. Table 29, 7). Obviously, such ribbons, decorated with various embossed ornamented plaques, and also with enameled plaques, could decorate not only the ochel'ya and ozherl’ya, but also belts. In Prince Vladimir Yaroslavich's tomb [12th century?] was found a belt from the patterned silk Byzantine ribbon, whose ornament is repeated in embroidery of the opyast'ya in the same burial (table 67, 2).
Kajma [border] - ribbon, used for the edging of clothing (oshivka, voshva). The researchers of ancient Russian clothing have already long ago focused attention on the fact that the clothing of pre-Mongol time was edged by various ribbons (Porkhorov V.A. 1881 s. 67, 76, 77; Rzhiga V.F. 1932 s. 54). Among the archaeological cloths of GIM a large quantity of material belongs to the diverse ribbons, coming from ornament of the edge of clothing (Fekhner M.T. 1971 p. 219-221). M.A. Novitskaya investigated silk fabrics, including ribbons with embroidery, found in the Ukraine. On the position of the details on the clothing was not preserved any information. Using information, gotten in the ancient monuments of art (on frescos, icons, in the written sources, etc.), she compared the archaeological material with the adornments of the different details of ceremonial clothing. Of the entire mass of material (ochel'ya, opyast'ya, ozherl’ya, collar [vorotnik]) she isolated the ribbons, which went into the adornments of "hems, edges of cloaks – korzno, and ribbons which were located vertically along the middle of the dress" (Novitskaya M.A. 1965 p. 34, 35).
As an example of a cloth which decorated a dress "from top to bottom", from the collar to the hem, it is possible to give one of the fragments of the 1903 Mikhajlovsk hoard in Kiev. This is a strip of cloth with a width of 14 cm. It is cut from silk of a dark-pink color. On it was stylized plant ornamentation, made by gold thread (Fekhner M.T. 1974. p. 68. example 1). The ornament on the fragment indicated it was laid vertically and consisted of two figures located in parallel. Ornament with vertically laid figures exists on the fragments from the Vladimir hoard of 1865 (Gushchin A.S. 1936 Vol. 19, 2, 4) (table 67, 12). A twisted/twining vine/twig is depicted on it, and the fragment itself is folded in half on a vertical line, this last fact makes it possible to presume that the kajma decorated the edge of front-opening [raspashnoj] clothing or imitated such an edge, imitating the known ceremonial clothing (Lazarev V.N. 1970 p. 46). Obviously, for the bands which decorated dresses from top to bottom, it was characteristic to place the ornament along the ribbon.
In recent years in the southern Russian steppes in the 10th cent. graves of Pechenego-Khazarskogo area (Moshkova M.G. Maksimenko V.V. 1974 p. 10) and in the Polovetskij kurgans of the 12th cent. (Otroshchenko V.V. 1983 p. 300-303) were discovered clothing of the short caftan type. The Byzantine kajma on the Polovets caftan is analogous to the kajma from the old-Russian Sharogoroda, which gives the right to assume that and the kajma from Sharogoroda are related to the caftan. A caftan is depicted on the 12 cent. fresco of the Kirillovskoy church of Kiev (Blinderova N.V. 1980 p. 52-60) (table 67,1).
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From the Old-Russian hoards are known wider kajma. With them, as proposes M.A. Novitskaya, were decorated the hem of the long clothing, similar to the clothing depicted on the fresco of Sofia's cathedral in Kiev, where it is possible to see the group portrait of the family of Yaroslav Mudry [the Wise] (Novitskaya M.A. 1965 p. 35), and also on the fresco of Sofia's cathedral in Novgorod, where Prince Yaroslav Mudry is represented. A wide kajma is known from Vladimirskoj hoard of 1865. The kajma is made from many-layered [многослойной] silk Byzantine cloth. On it – a stripe/chevron of gold thread in the form of triangles, filled with ornamentation in the form of bindweed [вьюнка] with krinami [fleur-de-lis like motif].
The most important material for the reconstruction of the clothing of ancient Russia is provided by the rare finds of its complete forms.
Details of cut and the entire forms of clothing (dress, glove, noses, stockings). An entire dress was discovered in 1957 in the strata of Toroptsa, burnt in the second-half of the 13 cent. as a result of Lithuanian invasion. In the 30 years which elapsed from the moment of excavation, it was strongly deformed, since it was not restored. The dress was made up from a large number of large fragments. It was sewn from woolen fabric of various textures [фактуры]. The top of the dress - from woolen cloths of tabby weave, the bottom - from cloth of twill weave. The folds are visible on some fragments. Well was preserved narrowing to the wrist sleeve with a gusset [ластовица, lastovitsa, specifically the underarm gusset]. It is made from the cloth of twill weave, the lastovitsa - from cloth of tabby weave. The seams, the connecting parts of dress, are made in such a way that the edges of the cloth would not be peeled off - by "zaposhivochnym seam" [flat-felled]. This technique of sewing arose with the design of the cut of clothing (table 68, 10). However, in Toroptse is found a piece of cloth with ornament in the "branoy" technique (table 68, 12) [should be 68, 11?]. One additional entire dress is found in Izyaslavl. It was sewn from several forms of the finest woolen cloth of tabby weave and cut with a top/bodice and separate skirt. The top of the dress is lined. The collar [vorot] is sheathed with a kajma of more closely woven cloth. [Table 68, 6] The kajma is constructed double and is pierced with horizontal stitches. The neck slit, located on the left of the collar, passes into the shoulder seam. At the waist the skirt is sewn to the bodice. It is put together with small gathers [сборки], for which are sewn four parallel seams [Table 68, 7]. At the seam uniting the bodice with the skirt, is sewn golden-fabric ribbon [galloon?], edged on two sides with silk thread twisted in the form of rope. [Table 68, 8] A kajma was sewn along the hem. [Table 68, 6] Judging by the seams, the sleeve was sewn under the arm, where a strip of cloth with a width of 5 cm was sewn. This detail is sewn across the sleeve with the finest seam - "forward needle" [вперед иглой, running stitch], and then a back stroke, the space between the stitches is filled so precisely, that it creates the impression of a machine seam. [this would be a double-running stitch or Holbein stitch] [Table 68, 9]
To judge the length of a dress is difficult. Only scientific restoration can give a complete idea not only about the technology of an article, but also about its form and size. If the proportions of the assembled dress are essentially correct, then its length reaches the knees.
On the existence of sewn dress in the Old-Russian cities give evidence the finds, discovered on the
Rajkovetskyy fortification in the territory of the Ukraine. The city perished during the invasion of Tatars (Goncharov V.I. 1950). Among the heap of burnt fabrics, which are located in the depository of the Kievskij Institute of Archaeology, there are fragments of woolen, flaxen and silk cloths of different structure. The seams were preserved on some of them. Fabrics of plain/tabby weave are laid in the creases, and also in the smallest pleats. Clothing with corrugation [гофрировкой, gathers] and pleating is known in the graves of Birka already from the 11th cent. The opinion is expressed that clothing with corrugation is imported from the lands of the southern Slavs (Khagg I. 1974 p. 20-26).
In individual regions of the south- Slav world was preserved to our time traditional clothing, which was constructed with the aid of the different type of folds, pleats and corrugation (on the skirts, the sarafans, the sleeves of shirts and on collars, (Elka Radous Ribarie 1975. Ill. In text and album).
Gathers, corrugation and pleating are also known in the traditional clothing of Russians, Ukrainians and Belorussians (Maslova G.S. 1956 p. 551. Fig. 1; p. 552 Fig. 1; p. 555 Fig 4; p. 604 Fig. 27).
The discovered dresses and their fragments testify of the existence in the environment of Old-Russian townspeople sewn clothing, which were created by different methods: both of not-cut-out [нераскроенных] pieces of cloth, put together with the help of various forms of gathers and pleats; and from the fundamental [коренных, supposed to be кроенных, i.e. cut?] pieces of cloth. Both methods of sewing relate to defined stages in the history of the making of clothing, but they exist in the traditional costume of Russians to the present day.
The found dresses give ideas about the culture of sewing, about the special features of the cut, and the character and the variety of seams. The dress from Izyaslavlya confirms the presence in ancient Russia of clothing which was constructed on the figure (приталенной - fitted). This clothing can be seen on the "girl" [Virgo?] from the Izbornik of Svyatoslav. On her is placed a dress with oplech'e and skirt in pleat [склодку] (Izbornik of Svyatoslav 1073. 1977 p. 251).
In the figures of the capital letters of the Old-Russian manuscripts are depicted the different forms of the existing clothing, among them – fitted [приталенной] with folds and gathers.
Besides entire robes, in the archaeological monuments are known diverse parts of clothing, which were preserved almost completely. Thus, in the 13th century layers of Novgorod is found a man’s felt cap [шапка] in the form of a kolpak [колпак], with a height of 20.5 cm. In the strata of ancient Russian cities were found entire gloves. Are known "knitted" gloves (GIM. Inventory of 1965. # 2709) and leather gloves (Izyumova S.A. 1959 p. 220, 3; Fig. 220, 3; Oyateva E.I. 1962 p. 92 Fig p. 10; Oyateva E.I. 1965 p. 51. Fig 3, 1) and frequently are found also "knitted" woolen socks [носки], stockings [чулки] and shoes [туфли] (Goluev L.A. 1973a p. 97. Fig. 31, 1-3; Shtysov G.V. 1975 p. 102 fig 53; Artsikhovskiy A.V 1930. p. 102). [вязаные - term means not only knitting, but also crochet, binding, tying, and, in this case, naalbinding]
In the layers of Old-Russian cities frequently are encountered "knitted", plaited [tablet woven bands are called "braids" in Russian] and woven fabric belts of woolen threads (GIM. op. 1143 # 1724, 1725). Are known leather belts with plaques (Ancient Novgorod, 1984. Ill. 287). The preserved metallic plaques from the leather belts make it possible to reconstruct them (Rybakov B.A. 1949. p. 54. Fig. 22). Best known of all are the forms of ancient foot-wear.
Foot-wear - this is an integral part of the costume. Like the costume, the foot-wear of each people was distinct and traditional. Customary forms and methods of production were transferred from one generation to the next, reflecting the ethnic history of people and cultural connections in the different stages of its development. Foot-wear was made from bast and leather.
Foot-wear from bast. The most archaic form of foot-wear, which existed in ancient Russia, is lapti [лапти, bast sandals], plaited from the bast [inner bark] of linden, birch and other species of tree. As the researchers of clothing assert, they were known in the Stone Age (Maslova of g.S. 1956 p. 714). In the early layers of Old-Russian cities they are almost unknown. In Novgorod discovered only one bast sandal, found in the 15th cent. layers. For the existence of lapti in earlier times they give evidence of finds of instruments for the weaving of lapti - weaving tools [kochedyk, кочедык] (Levashova V.P. 1959 "A" p. 56. Fig. 5 and "B". p. 90, 91), besides the presence of woven foot-wear in tombs (Levashovoa V.P. 1959 "A" p. 42, 43). Soles from woven leather straps are found in the Lyadinskom tomb and in the kurgan of the Vyatichi (Artsikhovskiy A.V. 1930 s. 102). On the basis that on the inner side of the sole from the Lyandinskoj tomb were preserved the remains of the bast tapes of the lapti itself, V.P. Levashova proposed that the woven leather soles from the Vyatichey kurgan could also belong to ordinary bast lapti. Lapti of the above-indicated tombs had different weaving: the soles from the Lyadinskogo tomb were slanting weaving, the sole from the kurgan of vyatichey - straight line. [diagonal/bias vs. square]
Judging by materials of recent ethnography, lapti could be in the form of shoes with low sides, similar to the Polesskij lapti of straight weave, and in the form of deep closed shoes of the northern type of slanting weave, known in the Novgorod lands. Lapti were fastened by means of long strings – obory [оборы], passed through the side of the lapti and wound around the feet. Foot-wear from bast were worn over the stockings [чулок], the socks [носок], leggings [ногавиц] and leg wraps [обмоток]. (Artsikhovskiy A.V. 1930 p. 102; Golubyov L.A. 1973a p. 97. Russian. 31, 4).
In antiquity, there were several names for foot-wear of the lapti type: "lych'nitsa", "lychak'" and "lap't'", [лычьница, лычакь и лапьть] derived from - "lapotnik'" - known in the written sources and going back, in the opinion of research, to the proto-Slavic [праславянской] epoch (Vakhros I.S. 1959 p. 10, 121-124, 126).
The earliest image of lapti dates to the 15th cent. On a miniature from Sergius Radonezhskiy's Life is presented a scene of ploughing with the peasant in lapti (Artsikhovskiy A.V. 1930 p. 187). Townspeople, obviously, did not wear lapti. Probably, lapti were work foot-wear, connected with field work. Lapti were always, up to 19-20th cent., worn by the poorest people.
Foot-wear of leather. In the cultural layer of many medieval cities, leather is preserved well. At present is accumulated the richest material for studying leather foot-wear. In just Novgorod hundreds of thousands of examples of foot-wear of different forms have been found. These are porshni [поршни] - low foot-wear, similar to lapti; shoes [башмаки] - foot-wear with a little collar at the ankle; boots [сапоги] and halfboots [полусапожки]- foot-wear with a boot top; and shoes [туфли] - foot-wear with low sides, reaching the ankle.
Serious analysis has been devoted to the Novgorod foot-wear by S.A. Izyumova (Izyumova S.A. 1959). This has developed the typology and chronology of the basic forms of the foot-wear, which were being worn by Novgorodians from the 10th through the 16th cent.
Finnish scientist I.S. Vaxros analysed the names of foot-wear in the Russian language and compared them with the specific forms of foot-wear (Vaxros I.S. 1959).
Further systematization of leather foot-wear is carried out by E.I. Oyatevoy on the material of Pskov (Oyateva E.I. 1962 p. 77-95) and Staraya Ladoga (Oyateva E.I. 1965 p. 42-59). Besides that, she brought in the materials of some others cities and the countries of the West (Oyateva I.E. 1970 p. 112-118).
In the present work are used the new materials, obtained by excavations in Novgorod, Beloozera, Staraya Rus, Staroj Ryazan, Minsk, Polotsk, Moscow, and also from the funeral monuments of 10-13th cent., which make it possible to pass from the local study of Old-Russian foot-wear to the generalization of all available material.
It is necessary to recognize, that this same E.I. Oyateva created the most successful classification scheme. The largest unit of her typology is the “group.” Group 1 includes the foot-wear of soft form; Group 2 - foot-wear of rigid form. The fashion (form) of the foot-wear gives the second unit of typology – the “type,” the 1st type unifies the shoes [башмаки, bashmaki], the 2nd - boots [сапоги], the 3rd – porshni [поршни]. The special features of cut made it possible to define subtypes: the 1st includes the whole-cut [one piece] foot-wear, the 2nd pieced-cut. Following this classification, let us examine consecutively each of the enumerated types of foot-wear.
Foot-wear of soft form (Group 1).
Bashmaki (type 1). This is the most ancient form of foot-wear in Russia. Bashmaki are discovered in Staraya Ladoga in the layers of the 8-10th centuries (table 69, 1-3) (Oyateva E.I. 1965 p. 42-50). This is soft foot-wear of tanned cow's or goat skin with lapels/sides higher than the ankle. Using the method of cut - from one-piece piece or from two pieces of leather - bashmaki can be divided into two subtypes. One-piece were cut from large pieces of leather, then the parts of the cut were sewed with tachnym [тачным, split hold? see Izyumova.] and turned [выворотные] seams. One-piece bashmaki are found in Novgorod and old Ladoga (table 69, 3), and in other cities of the 10-13 centuries. (Izyumova S.A. 1959 p. 201). A bashmak from a single piece of leather was found on the Raykovetskyy fortification (Goncharov V.K. 1950. Table 30. Fig. 8)
In old Ladoga among the early bashmaki are known those made of two pieces of leather for the top and the sole (table 69, 2). Bashmaki of two pieces of leather are widespread in the strata of Old-Russian cities of the 10-13 cent. Two versions of their cut are known: with the seam on the side (table 69, 4, 5, 9, 14, 19) and with the seam in back (table 69, 6).
Materials from the excavations of old Ladoga, Pskov, Novgorod, Beloozera, Minsk (Shut K.P. 1965 p. 72-81), old Ryazan (Mongayt A.L. 1955 p. 169, 170). Ancient Grodno (Boronin N.N. 1954 p. 61, 62), Moscow (Rabinovichkh M.G. 1964 p. 287; Shelyanina N.S. 1971 p. 152-153), Polotsk (Shtykhov G.V. 1975 p. 72-80), Old Russo (Medvedev A.F. 1967 p. 283), and other cities give evidence of a united tradition in the production of Old-Russian bashmaki beginning in the 8th cent. This unity is expressed in the existence of bashmaki of identical cut in all Old-Russian cities. Special bashmaki with an elongated heel predominated only in Beloozere, because of the specialization of leather working in this city (Oyateva E.I. 1973b "A" p. 204).
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The cut of bashmaki with the opening on the counter/back [заднике] or the toe [носке] was transfered to the cut of rigid boots.
One special feature is characteristic for the bashmaki of the 8-9th centuries: their soles do not have sufficiently clear outline for the right and left foot, although the cut of the top is asymmetric and calculated for the right and the left of the foot (Oyateva E.I. 1962 p. 89, 90). The soles of ancient Russian shoes are sewed to the top with a turned seam, the details of the top sewed with tachnym [split hold?] seam.
The Old-Russian bashmaki of the 10-14th centuries were fastened with the aid of a strap, passed through rows of holes in the region of the ankle. With this method of fastening the shoe was suitable for a foot with any instep.
Bashmaki were decorated with embroidery, in 8-10 cent. mainly by ornamental stripes on the middle of the toe. They made them via piercing of small stitches (table 69, 2).
In the 10-13th cent. bashmaki were decorated with more diverse embroidery. Foliage-geometric ornament predominated. Are found bashmaki with pattern not only in the form of flights/sprouts [побегов], krinov [fleur-de-lis like motifs], which present plant -flowered [растительно-травчатый] ornament (table 70, 12,13), but also with a pattern in the form of diamonds (table 70, 9 [?]), circular (table 70,7) and arrow-shaped figures (table 70, 13). They were embroidered with woolen, flaxen and silk threads. They were colored into red, green and other colors. The outlines of figures were embroidered by a "back needle" seam [back-stitched?], or as it is still called, "verovochkoy" [веровочкой]. Besides embroidery, shoes were decorated with the aid of colored threads and narrow straps passed through rows of holes in the leather (table. 69, 2; 70, 14).
In the 13-14th cent., they began to employ stamping in the adornment of shoes. Usually these are along parallel incisions between elements of plant-geometric ornament on the toe of the shoe (Shut K.P. 1965 p. 73. Ill.2).
The subjects of the embroideries on the shoes indicate the unity of ornament on the articles of daily life and art. Analogies with the patterns of embroideries can be found on the fabrics (Novitskaya M.A. 1972 Tables 1-3), on adornments with enamel (Makarvoa T.I. 1975. p. 18-21. Fig. 4), in the carving on wood (Kolchin B.A. 1971 p. 18. Fig. 1-3), and also on frescoes (Gresov E 1947 p. 11),
In ancient Russia, besides the general names for foot-wear [обуви] - "obushcha", "obutel'", "obutiye", [обуща, обутель, обутие] known from the 11 cent., there existed a large quantity of names connected with specific types of foot-wear. Bashmak is the most recent of them and moreover is clearly borrowed from Turkish languages. It appeared not earlier than the 15th cent. (Vasros I.S. 1959 p. 51).
Earlier in Russia, to refer to the soft bashmaki, they probably used the term "cherev'ya", which comes from the pan-Slavic vocabulary. It comes from the name of the material - soft leather from the chreva (stomach) of animal. It is possible to propose that the term "cherev'ya", encountered in the Povest of Vremennykh Let under the year 1074 and interpreted by Sreznevskim as various types of foot-wear, referred to the very type of foot-wear, which will later be called bashmaki. This is all the more probable since the word for "bashmak" in the Ukrainian language is the word "chervik" (Bakhros I.S. 1959 p. 45, 68-71).
Old-Russian bashmaki are depicted in the miniatures of the Radzilvillovskoy chronicle (Artsikhovskiy A.V. 1944 p. 26, 27; History of Russian Art 1953 p. 39).
Bashmaki in the 10-13th cent. were typically urban foot-wear. But, judging by the findings in the kurgans, they were worn also by the rural population (Antonovich V.B. 1893 p. 16; Artsikhovskij A.V. 1930 p. 102).
Boots (type 2). Boots and halfboots were the favorite type of foot-wear in Russia. They differed from each other only in the height of the boot tops, and their development occurred in the same direction; therefore they are examined in a single typological series.
The boots of pre-Mongol Russia can be divided into two subtypes: boots cut from a large piece of leather with a solid boot top and those cut from several small parts.
The first subtype has many versions of the cut. One of them is presented in the boots from Novgorod (Izyumova S.A. 1959. S. 212. Fig. 7). The upper was solid/seamless [цельнотянутым], about which the cut gives evidence. The tops of boots [голенища, golenishcha] are made of two halves, the forward section forming the vamp [головку, part of shoe covering the front of the foot] and then the boot top, and the rear piece corresponds to counter/back [задник] and also forms the boot top (table. 69, 8). This example is the earliest model of boot. It is dated to the 11th cent.
An analogous boot was found also in later layers of Novgorod, its boot top had holes made for passing a strap through (table 69, 7).
Soles of such boots had rounded outlines for the toe and heel. The upper of the boot was sewn with a tachnym [split hold?] seam, the soles sewn on with turned seam. They were worn by youth and children. Versions of similar boots are known from the findings in Pskov (Oyateva E.I. 1962 p. 85).
In layers of the 11-12th cent. was discovered a boot, whose upper consisted of three parts. [Table 69, 11?]
Also interesting are the boots found in Pskov in a 12 cent. building. The upper of their consisted of two parts: single-seam boot top and vamp (Table 69, 12). Both versions of the cut of Pskov boots had soles with the rounded outlines of toe and heel. The boot’s upper was sewn with tachnym [split hold] seam, soles were sewn on with a turned seam. On the boot tops were placed cuts for passing through a strap. The described boots belonged to adolescents. Obviously, the Pskov boots were later in comparison with the Novgorod. In them can be traced the development of the gradual detailing of cut, the defining of the vamp into an independent detail. The tendency toward detailed patterns is a chronological feature characteristic of all types of foot-wear.
Boot tops analogous to those of Pskov, are found also in Polotsk (Shtykhov G.V. 1975 p. 78. Fig 38, 1, 2). They have a flared form and slits for passing through a strap. Judging by the boot tops found in Novgorod, such boots were attached to the foot not only around the ankle, but also under the knee (Table 69, 10).
For the boots of the second subtype (pieced-cut) is characteristic further detailing of cut, in particular the isolation of the counter/back (Table 69, 11, 17). Similar entire boots are found in Novgorod (Izyumova S.A. 1959 p. 212. Fig. 1) and Pskov (Oyateva E.I. 1962 p. 86. Fig. 8, 11). They have not only such independent details as vamps and counters/backs, but also leather linings under them for strengthening the lower part of the boot, which indicates a tendency leading toward the origin of the foot-wear of rigid forms and, later, in the 14-15th centuries, will lead to appearance of the heel (table 69, 24, 25).
Obviously, in the 10-13th cent. were many transitional types of boot; therefore in the layers of Old-Russian cities are found not only counters/back of various pattern, but also seamless/solid boot tops, calculated/designed for soles with rounded and elongated outlines in the region of the heels (tab. 69, 15,20). They seemingly repeated the cut of bashmaki. Rarely are encountered boots with the elongated turned-up toe. Such boots will become popular in the 15th cent. [Note that such boots are depicted in manuscripts as early as the 11th century - see below.]
All boots of 14-16 centuries maintained the traditions of the cut of the pre-Mongol boots: counters/backs with the triangular cut and soles with elongated tongues, which carry out the design and decorative significance (table 69, 23, 24). Even the composition of the heel was the result of the refinement/development of the multilayer padding in the sole of boots, which existed in the 12th cent.
Thus, in the development of boots a known sequence is observed. Judging by the Novgorod findings of the 10-11th centuries, their quantity is still small. These boots are seamless/solid. Then appear boots of detailed-cut/pattern. In the 12th cent. they coexist. Further appear the boots of rigid form, which in the 14th cent. displaced both the soft boots and soft shoes.
Boots found in Novgorod, as a rule, are without ornament; the isolated details of boots with the ornament that have been preserved (boot top, vamp, etc.), from the 14-16th cent, indicate the unity of ornamental subjects and their use both on boots and on shoes (table 70, 1-4). From the 15 cent. widely is distributed stamping on the vamps of boots, characteristic for thicker and hard leathers, but not for the thin and soft leathers, which were being used in pre-Mongol time (table 70, 5).
The old-Russian name "sapog'" [сапогь] also is of Turkish or Pre-Bulgarian origin. In the beginning of the 2nd millenium this term, in the opinion of I.S. Vakhros (Vakhros I.S. 1959 p. 207), displaced the Slavic name of the foot-wear with the high boot top - "skr'nya"[скрьня] (with a root, designating the skin of an animal).
The rich wore boots. An indispensable part of princely clothing were the colored boots, frequently embroidered with pearls and plaques. Thus, on the 12 cent. fresco in the church of Spatsa-Nereditsy in Novgorod, Prince Yaroslav Vladimirovich is depicted in yellow boots, decorated with pearls. In the "Izbornik of Svyatoslav" 1073 on the group portrait of the family of Svyatoslav it is possible to see the earliest image of boots with the characteristic turned-up toes: Prince Svyatoslav - in the dark-blue boots, and his son Yaroslav - in the red.
Porshni (type 3). Porshni were the simplest and most widespread foot-wear in ancient Russia. It is possible to divide them into two subtypes: one-piece (subtype 1) and detailed-pattern, or else called, composite (subtype 2). They were made not only from the soft tanned leather, but also from raw hide.
One-piece porshni were made from a piece of leather of different forms. For the first version of cut was used a rectangular piece of leather (table 69, 21). The porshni of the 11-13th cent. were made via the simplest gathering of the piece leather in the region of toe and heel with a bast [?] or leather lace, passed through the single cuts on the sides. The laces tightened the porshni and were tied around the leg over the pants, the stockings [чукок] or the leg wraps. Such porshni existed in the life of peasants up to the 20th cent.
Using the method of formation, the porshni of rectangular cut can be divided into several types. Thus, besides the simplest gathering, some porshni were made in such a way that, with the formation of the toe, was formed beautiful weaving [плетешок – better translated as pleating here?] (table 69, 21).
In the 14 cent. in the layers of Old-Russian cities appear porshni whose toe and heel are no longer gathered with a strap, but are sewn by threads (table 69, 18), this is related, obviously, with the use of harder leathers.
Unique porshni existed from the 10th cent. in Beloozere. They were also made from a rectangular piece of leather, but had unique cuts in the region of the toe. Such porshni were not gathered, but were sewn (Oyateva E.I. 1973. "A" p. 201).
The second version of porshni of a whole piece leather are porshni from a hexagonal [more or less] piece of leather (table 69, 13). Along the edge of toe and heel they are supplied with holes for tightening with a lace, and along instep and toe were arranged diagonal cuts for the lacing. Along the sides there were also cuts. The lace passed through them to attach the porshni to the foot. This strap support is later called "oborami" [оборами]. Such porshni in the scientific literature are called "openwork" [ажурными] (Izyumova S.A. 1959 p. 202). They are known in the layers of Old-Russian cities since the 11th cent.
Subtype 2 presents porshni made from several parts. It is known in two versions of the cut: of two and of three parts. The porshni of the first version are known in Novgorod from the 11th cent. Major portion of its preparation includes sole, counter/back and sides. It takes the form of an irregular rectangle with blunt/cut-off angles in the toe part. The smaller fragment of the pattern took the form of triangle. The main piece was bent around the foot, and the triangular piece was sewn in at the instep. The cuts for the passing of lace were located along the sides of the porshni.
The porshni of the second version consisted of major portion of the pattern, which included sole and counter, the separately undercut [подкроенного] toe of triangular form and strips of leather sewn on the side with transverse cuts, through which the lace was passed. All parts were sewn with threads (Table 69, 22). In old Ladoga was found an entire porshni of this version (Oyateva E.I. 1965 p. 53. Fig. 4,2; 5,3). It is dated to the 16th cent. Thus, porshni of three parts can be considered as the result of the development of the porshni of the pre-Mongol era.
The term "porshen’" [поршень]. I.S. Vakhros derives it from the proto-Slavic "r'chkh" [рьчх] (Vakhros I.S. 1959 p. 161). The words formed from this root indicated anything soft, loose: porshni made from soft leather, from the loose parts, located on the belly of animal. The Old-Russian designation of porshni - "prabosh'n'"[прабошьнь] is encountered only in the concepts of the 14-15th centuries, and for the living language of this time it not characteristic (Ibid s. 206).
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In the miniatures of the Radzivillovskoy chronicle, porshni are depicted repeatedly (Artsikhovskiy A.V. 1944 p. 40). On the basis of the data of excavations and graphic material the researchers of the foot-wear of are inclined to consider porshni the foot-wear of the poorest townspeople and peasants (Izyumova S.A. 1959 p. 202).
Foot-wear of rigid form (Group 2).
Shoes [туфли] (type 1). As we could see above, the elements of rigid form - the strengthening leather padding - were used in some types of Old-Russian foot-wear even in pre-Mongol time. Finally the tradition of the production of foot-wear of rigid forms was formed more recently, in the 14-15th centuries. The earliest type of the foot-wear of rigid form could be considered the shoes [tufli - туфли], the characteristic feature of which was the presence of rigid sole and low sides.
According to their cut they are divided into two subtypes: shoes from the one-piece upper and sole (subtype 1) and shoes from the pieced-cut upper and sole (subtype 2).
For preparing shoes of the first subtype [one-piece upper], two versions of the cut used: with the seam at the side (table 70, 15-19) and with the seam in back (table 70, 16). Shoes were fastened together by laces on the instep or on the inside of the ankle. Sometimes they were decorated with thread on the instep (Oyateva YE.I. 1970 p. 11. Fig. 1), analogous to similar shoes existing in the medieval cities of Western Europe, especially Polish.
The shoes of the second subtype (pieced-cut) are known from the finds in Minsk, in the layers of the end of the 13th cent. (Shut K.P. 1965 p. 25, 73, 78. Fig. 7) The development of their form is encountered in old Ladoga, in the layers of the 16-17th centuries. They have a deep head/cap with a tongue on the instep, a composite counter/back with lining/packing [прокладками], three-layered sole with the wide low-set heel, which was fastened with wooden pins and sewn with waxed thread. The details of the upper were sewn with a tachnym [split hold] seam, and the upper attached to the sole like a sandal [i.e. with an external seam]. Shoes were held on the foot with the aid of a strap, which was cut together with the internal half of the counter/back and was passed through the cuts on the tongue (Oyateva E.I. 1965. p. 56. Fig. 5, 1).
Wide distribution of shoes [туфель] in Western Europe and the concentration of their finds in the western regions of Russia make it possible to connect their appearance with the resurrection of the western contacts by the Russian state. However, the prerequisites for the appearance of foot-wear of rigid forms already existed in the leather work of pre-Mongol Russia. The described foot-wear makes it possible to trace the succession of the types of cut and ornamentation from the 10th century up to the period of Muscovite Rus.
Not less important is another conclusion: foot-wear can be a unique ethnic indicator of the mixed composition of the urban populations of ancient Russia (Oyateva YE.I. 1973 p. 204, 205). For example, the peoples of the Volga Region of the 9-10th centries, that belonged to Finno-Ugric group, bore a unique cut of porshni. Specifically, such porshni are found in Beloozera. Bashmaki with the characteristic elongated heel piece are genetically connected with the Pan-European form of foot-wear, passing out of the deepest past. On our territory they are found in the early layers of old Ladoga and in a number of cities of northwestern Russia.
Finally, finds of foot-wear in the cultural layer of Old-Russian cities can serve as chronological identifiers. The forms of foot-wear evolved, changing the technology of their production and use of ornamentation. All this gives the possibility of dating, especially for finds in cultural layers with unclear chronology (table 69).
Reconstruction of Old-Russian clothing
For the reconstruction of Old-Russian costume as a whole is selected the method of the imposition of archaeological findings on the conventional silhouettes from the images on frescoes and miniatures of ancient Russia. For reconstruction of the urban costume are used the entire forms, found in the excavations of cities (dress, the detail of clothing, foot-wear) and also the ensembles of decoration, which were preserved in the treasure hoards.
The peasant costume is mainly established with archaeological material from the burials of the Krivichi and Vyatichi. The correspondence of fabrics from the archaeological excavations with peasant fabrics of the 19th to beginning of the 20th cent., and also their terminological correspondences made it possible to carry many types of peasant clothing of the 19th cent. back to the earlier period (Levinson -Nechaeva M.N. 1959 p. 20-34; Kuftin B.A. 1926 p. 48; Levashova V.P. 1966 p. 112-119).
Table 71-73 presents the reconstructions of princely-boyars' attire. Archaeological material is placed on those garments, which are known on the frescoes of the 9-13th centuries and belong to ancient Russian princes. As is known, the graphic material gives two basic types of the cut of woman's clothing (Kalashnikov N.M. 1972 p. 29, 30). The first type includes the dresses of straight cut, intercepted at the waist by a belt. The sleeves of clothing could be either wide or narrow with opyast'em [cuffs]. Such dresses most frequently are sewn from single-tone cloth and are decorated along the hem with an ornamental strip, more rarely with a kajma [border] and oplech'ye [wide collar] (table 71, 1). The second type of dresses were straight or slightly widening downward, with narrow sleeves, which are concluded with opyast'e [cuffs] (table 73 1,2). They were sewn from richly ornamented cloth and decorated with oplech'em [collars] and a kajma [border], which passes down the center and along the hem (Sal'ko N.B. 1982. Ill. 29, 30, 102). Such dresses entered into the traditional costume of the highest layer of society. They are noted in the princely-boyar and tsarist life of the 16-17th centuries. (Sizov E. 1969. Ill. 10, 24 - lower dresses, 15 - upper dress). In the reconstruction of the princely-boyars' attire leather boots are shown. Their form is given by the finds in the layers of Novgorod.
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On table 71-72 is assembled the material, which includes the unique stylized attire made from silver niello. Table 71, 1 presents a woman's costume. On the head of the princess is a venets. Its form could have a different outline. In the graphic materials are known ventsy with both the rounded and pointed top above the brow (fresco on the wall of Dmitrovskogo cathedral in Vladimir with the image of righteous wives - Sal'ko N.B. 1982. Ill. 102; the miniature of Pantelejmonova of 13th cent. gospel - St Ekaterina - Strekalov S., 1877. Iss. 1. p. 19). These forms became traditional. They [referring to the metal ornaments] are laid in two rows and compose zigzag ornament. Remainders from similar ornaments on a rigid foundation were found in the Nabutovskom tomb of the former Kiev province (Geze V. 1904 p. 86. Fig. 1) (table 72, 2, 3). In the burial along the sides of the ochel'ya with the plaques were found also chains with ringlets [колечками], analogous to those known on ryasna of kolodochek [колодочек, little logs] - obviously, the latter were not preserved. The venets in the table is decorated with kolti, suspended from ryasni of kolodochki. This scheme of fastening kolti was proposed by B.A. Rybakov (Rybakov B.A. 1949 p. 55, 58, Fig. 23). The correctness of the reconstruction of B.A. Rybakov is confirmed by findings of recent years: discovery of chains of kolodochek, from which are suspended kolty, and also three-bead temple rings. They wore them on a ring fastened to the end link. [Table 43, 24] On the reconstruction are shown kolty, found in Chernigov (Rybakov B.A. 1949 p. 56). They are edged with hollow balls. On the blackened [niello] background of their panel are depicted griffins along the sides of vertically positioned nets (table 72, 4). The image of nets on kolti is analogous with the ornament of the collar [vorotnik], found also in the Nabutrovskom tomb (Spitsyn A.A. 1905 p. 149. Fig. 101). The gold embroidery of the collar is augmented by the images of crosses. On the collar, as on the head-gear, were sewn gilded silver plaques of rounded and square forms (arrangement of the latter is unknown). The fastening of collar in the form of hollow gilt silver shank buttons just as the ornament in the form of net, composes a united whole with the decoration of the kolti. Similar collars could be sewn to the lower clothing (table 72, 5). The oplech'e [collar] of the dress, the belt and the hem present ornamentation of embossed plaques and embroidery. The dress is decorated with ribbons in the center similar to those found by V.V. Khvoyko in the burials of Shargoroda of the former Kiev province (Khvoyko V.V. 1905 p. 101; KIM. Inv. # 67185-8). They are embroidered with gold thread in the form of heart-shaped figures with krinami [fleur-de-lis like motif], their arrangement indicates the arrangement of the ribbons on the dress on a vertical line (Table 72, 8). The ornament on the depicted ribbons and kolti is close to ornament on many silver bracelet- hoops (table 72. 7). Thus, on the bracelet from the Kiev treasure hoard of 1939 the ornament consists of two belts (Korzukhina G.F. 1954. Table 11, 2). In its upper part are depicted heart-shaped figures, analogous to embroidery on the kajma, while in the lower part - netting. Into the ensemble of niello silver adornments entered the signet rings [перстни-печати]. ]. Similar ornament can be seen on the ring from the hoard of 1869 (Gushchin A.S. 1936 p. 81. Table 30, 11) - table 72, 6.
Next to the reconstruction of the clothing of a princess is given the silhouette of a prince (table 71, 2). On the prince are represented the same clothing as on the fresco of Kirillovskoy church in Kiev, which depicts Tsar Theodosius [presumably a Byzantine emperor since Rus did not have a tsar at this time, and certainly none named Theodosius]. As considered by the researchers of this monument, the costume of Theodosius conveys the "complete detail of a 12th cent. Russian prince” (Blinderova N.V. 1980 p. 59). On the prince – a pointed-top [островерхий, steeple-crowned] venets, which resembles the imperial crown with characteristic lateral pendants [?] (Darkevich V.P. 1975 p. 133), caftan with the wide sleeves, from under which be seen the sleeves of the shirt [sorochka]. The oplech'e, breastplate [nagrudnik, нагрудник, the vertical piece between the collar and the belt?] and hem of the caftan are decorated with plaques and stones. The cloth of the caftan is of dark red color with ornament in the form of heart-shaped figures, with krinami. On the prince - green pants and high soft boots of red color, embroidered by beads or plaques. The man’s costume given on the table corresponds to the ornamentation of the metallic attire of the time indicated.
Table 73, 1 gives the reconstruction of the ceremonial suit of a princess with adornments of enamel. On the head of princess - complex head-gear, which consists of the diadem with the enamel images of the Diesis on kiottsakh [table 45, 11], gold hoops [скобочек] and ryasny with kolti. The head-gear presents one of the possible ritual head-dresses, whose reconstruction is based on the common occurrence of parts of head-gear in the hoards indicated and by analogy with wedding crowns and the ventsy known in the ethnography of the north of the 16-20th cent. (Saburova M.A. 1978 p. 408-412). The diadem was sewn on a rigid cap band or ochel'e. Appendages [привески, priveski] with pearls hung on the forehead, and the arc of the ochel'ya decorated the cylinder of the headdress on its upper part. Along the sides of head-gear are suspended ryasny [Table 72, 1] with kolti [Table 44, 7], decorated with enamel. T.I. Makarov, following the data of G.F. Korzukhinoy (which noticed the presence of a dual hinge/joint in the middle of the ryasny), explained the fact that ryasna on half of their length were bent, becoming double-sided like kolty, which were hung in the place at the bend of the ryasna (Korzukhina G.F. 1954 p. 54; Makraova T.I. 1975 p. 40). Obviously, the chain, which is located on one end of the ryasna, was fastened to the foundation of the headress and was fixed at the temple with the aid of the temple ring, which is located on the other end of the ryasna. It is interesting that in the peasant attire of 11-12th cent. are also found the double ribbons, as if playing the role of ryasny for suspending the rings. For selecting the material in the complex, the similarity of the decorative peculiarities of adornments was considered. Thus, head-gear could consist of a diadem, similar to that found in Kiev in 1889 (Kondakov N. 1896 p. 139. Table 8) and ryasny, similar to those found in 1900 in Sakhnovke (Makarov T.I. 1975 p. 103). They are united not only by the similarity of the geometric ornament on the plaques of the ryasny and the hanging platelets of the diadem, but also by their quatrefoil form. Into this attire could enter kolty, analogous to those found in the treasure of 1827 in Kiev (Kondakov N. 1896. Table 10, 2-4). The head-gear of the princess is covered with a veil [fata]. Oplech'e, kajma and ozherl’ye are decorated with embroidery, plaques and pearls, known also in the Mikhajlovskoj hoard of 1903 (GIM. Inv. # 49876). In the costume is included a breast adornment [нагрудное украшение] - barmy, found in Sakhnovke in the same hoard as the diadem (Makarov T.I. 1975. Table 14) B.A. Rybakov assumed that in this attire bracelets were not worn, since gold bracelets with enamel and stones were not known to us, substituted by embroidery on the opyast'yakh [cuffs] of the sleeves (Rybakov B.A. 1970 p. 36). However, besides sewn opyastiy [cuffs], could be worn gold bracelets, analogous to those found in the Ryazansk treasure hoard of 1822 (Kondakov N. 1896 p. 95. Table 16, 3). From this come gold rings with garnets and pearls, composing a single whole with the bright enamel attire.
Tables 73, 2, 3 depict a costume including adornment from the stamped platelets (both smooth and with insets) and figured cuts in the metal. With them were decorated the ochel'ya of the head-gear (table 66, 8-14), ozherel’ya and ozherelki, belt and kajma of clothing (table 74, 3-24). They widely used obniz' [edging, strings] of pearls both in embroidery and in metallic ornaments. All these adornments usually are encountered in the hoards together with enamel and niello items and they are considered additions to two stylistically unified attires. Nevertheless from this collection of ornaments can be established independent attire. Thus, in the reconstruction (table 73, 2) is depicted the female head-gear found in Novgorod (Strokov A.A. 1945 p. 72, 73. Fig. 32) - Table 66, 14. The ochel'e of the head-gear is decorated with embossed plaques and silver filigree plaques with granules. Obviously, a similar attire could be worn with ryasny, made up of conical pendants with eight chains going out from them. Its cap/hood was decorated with filigree and granules, and on the chains were threaded hollow plaques and pendants of diamond and drop-like form at the end (Darkevich V.P. 1972 p. 206, 207. Fig. 1; Sedov M.T. 1963 p. 49. Fig. 12, 9). [Table 43, 37] The entire collection of pendant plaques, also including in the ornament decorations of filigree and granules are combined with pendants from the discovered ochel'e [forehead decoration]. Among the sewn-on plaques are interesting large plaques with S-shaped cuts [Table 74, 14] from the Kiev treasure hoard of 1824 (Kondakov N. 1896 p. 104. Fig. 66). They are a version of the plaques on the ochel'e. The entire collection given in table 74, and also plaques from the Kiev treasure of 1824, were used for adorning the dress (table 73, 2).
Table 73, 3 depicts the costume of boyarinas, including a diadem and ryasna in the form of ribbons with three-bead temple rings and kolti. The finds in the Chernigov burial near the altar of Boriso-Glebskoy church indicate the possible quantity of these ornaments in one outfit (Korzukhina G.F. 1954 p. 52).
Table 75 presents the urban costume of elite and simple townspeople based on material from three cities. Fig. 13 and 14 [actually 12 & 13] give the silhouettes, created based on materials of the Raykovetskyyo fortification and ancient Izyaslavl. In Fig. 13  it is possible to see a diadem of kolodochki [little logs], found on the skeleton of a victim (Goncharov V.K. 1950. Table 20, 15). The diadem is fastened to the head above plat [kerchief]. On the neck – also an ozherelok [collar] of kolodochki, known from the kurgan inventory (table 74, 25). In the composition of ornaments are included the following findings from the layer of the Raykovetskogo fortress: beads (Goncharov V.K. 1950. Table 18, 1), grivny [torque necklaces] (Ibid. Table 20, 4), glass bracelets (Ibid. Table. 22, 3) metallic bracelets (Ibid. Table 19, 9; 20, 2,3), finger rings (Ibid. Table 19, 9), belt plaques (?) (Ibid. Table 20, 11) and ozherelka (9) with embroidery (Ibid. Table 29, 3). In contrast to the Raykovetskogo head-gear, on the attire from Izyalsavl (Fig. 14)  are shown ryasna of kolodochek [little logs] with triangular components at the ends. From the lower end of the ryasen were suspended the three-bead temporal rings, while on the upper end – finger-ring-shaped rings, with the aid of which the ryasna were attached to the head-gear. Judging based on materials of the Raykovetskyyo fortification and Izyaslavl, the townspeople of those indicated cities used adornments similar in form, and also a unified collection of fabrics. The clothing is characterized by the wide use of folds/pleats, corrugation [гофрировки] and pleating. The entire dress, found in Izyaslavl, is represented in Fig. 14 . It is close to clothing on the 14th cent. Novgorod icon "Nativity of the Mother of God" from the Tret'yakovskoy gallery (table 68, 1, 2). These are upper short clothing, from under which is visible a long shirt. The oplech'ya [collar], hem, sleeves at the wrist, and also the forearm [переплечье, actuallyupper arm judging by the illustration?] are sheathed by ribbon.
The silhouettes in Fig. 10-12 [actually 9-11] of table 75 present the complex of clothing and adornments based on materials of excavations in Suzdal (Saburova M.A. of Sedov M.T. 1984 p. 114-122). The head-gear on the woman of middle years (Fig. 12)  encloses the hair, in the ears is the finger-ring-shaped ring. On the girl (Fig. 10)  on the loose hair - banded head-gear with ryasni of finger-ring-shaped rings, with the three-bead rings suspended on them. On a girl (Fig. 11)  are braided plaits, into which were placed finger-ring-shaped rings (up to 20 pcs). On the silhouettes is represented the outer clothing with the zapakh [upper flap] on the left side, the dresses and the shirts, with ribbons and embroidered collars [vorotniki] with the fastening on the left side. Among the ornaments it is possible to see lamellar fibuli, lamellar and beaten rings and rings with insets, bracelets and so forth. The typical foot-wear of the ancient Russian townspeople were leather shoes [туфли] with embroidery. The material of the Suzdal'skogo cemetery relates to an earlier time (11th - middle 12th cent.), than the materials of the Raykovetskogo fortress and Izyaslavl (beginning of the 13th cent.). Nevertheless in Suzdal was created the typical urban attire of the 12th cent. Obviously, here as in Kiev, Novgorod, Chernigov, Smolensk, on the base of the druzhinnoy [courtly] culture, the urban culture began to develop very early.
Table 76 presents the reconstructions of the complex of peasant clothing based on materials of the Vyatichi. Reconstruction of the head-gear of the woman of middle years is given on silhouette 1. It is restored based on materials which are stored in the Museum of the Department of Archaeology of MGU. The pattern of the preserved detail from the head-gear is given on table 77, 2. Its details, and also the shawl, sewn on figured bands, checkered [клетчатой] cloth (table 77, 3) and adornments came from the excavations of A.V. Artsikhovskogo 1940-1946. On silhouette 2 are reproduced the adornments of a young woman. They are restored based on materials of five burials from the different kurgan groups (Saburova M.A. 1976 p. 127-131). The head-gear with the fringe, represented on the silhouette, is known in southern Great-Russia in the 19th cent. They were worn by youths together with a complex of clothing, includes the paneva. The checkered woolen and half-woolen cloths, similar to the later "panevnym", are known using archaeological materials (table 77, 3). The costume of young girl-bride is given on silhouette 3. Above the loose hair is worn a ribbon headdress with seven-bladed temple rings on ribbons (table 76, 3; 77, 1). Clothing includes some elements of the urban costume: the silk oplech'e with embroidery and plaques (table 77, 8), stripes of silk ribbons and plaques on the woolen band of head-gear (table 77, 7), the glass bracelet, etc. Foot-wear - soft bashmaki. On silhouette 3, foot-wear is in the form from the kurgans near Bityakovo Domodedovo region [collar](Rozenfel'dt R.L. 1973 p. 65. Fig. 18)
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Table 78 gives reconstructions of clothing and adornments based on materials of peasant burials. On silhouette 1 is represented the costume based on materials of the Vologodskikh kurgans (Saburova M.A. 1974 s. 90. Fig 3). On silhouette 2 - costume of a betrothed girl in the polotentse [veil] of loosely woven cloth, which they wove for weddings and deaths. The panyova is restored based on the well-preserved entire motif of woolen cloth from Bityagovo (GIM). The adornments are from the same kurgans. On silhouette 3 is a woman's costume based on materials of the Krivichi (Schmidt YE.A. 1957 p. 184-281). The high head-dress, which resembles a kokoshnik with plaques, hides the hair of the woman. Along the sides of head-gear are bracelet-shaped temporal rings and romboshchitkovye [ромбощитковые], that were fastened to the birch bark circles. On the chest are an abundance of adornments: beads of bright combinations, miniature pendants of metal [priveski], chains, little bells. The bracelets are worn over the shirt. Clothing consists of a long shirt with embroidery, made with the aid of the "branoy" technique. On the feet - soft leather bashmaki.
Table 75 presents men's costume. Thus, based on materials of the Suzdal'skogo cemetery are reconstructed shirts [рубахи] with the different cut of collar (table 75, 2, 5). Among these is represented a silhouette in a short shirt with a stoyechka [standing ozherel'ya collar] opening to the left (table 75, 2). The standing collar [vorotnik] of the shirt, the sleeve at the wrist and the belt are decorated with embroidery. On graphic materials are known long men’s shirts. On them it is possible to see adornments in the form of a rectangular piece on the chest, decorated opyast'ya [cuffs] and hem (Antonov V.I., Mneva N.E. 1963. Ill. 84) (table 75, 4). On silhouette 4 is represented a long dress with voshvi, decorated with embroidery as on the voshvi found in the Vladimir kugrans (Prokhorov v. 1881. Fig. 1. Table 8) (Table 67, 7). A well preserved chest adornment of rectangular form is found in the Ivanovo province by K.I. Komarov in 1975 (Table 67, 5). On silhouette 7 is represented upper winter clothing, restored by analogy with the Hutsul sheepskin coat [polushubka] (Rybakov B.A. 1949 p. 37, 38. Fig 12). On silhouette 8 is shown the outer clothing with the zapakh [upper flap] on the left side, which, in the opinion of ethnographers, appeared simultaneously with the man’s blouse [косовороткой]. Such a form of cut distinguished the outer clothing from the clothing of their neighbors (Maslova G.S. 1956 p. 581. Annotated. 4) Long outer clothing with the zapakh to the left side is known in the miniatures, depicting brothers - the founders of Kiev (Radzivillovskaya chronicle, 1902. L. 4) On the men’s silhouettes are depicted princely caps (table 75, 8, 9, 15) [actually 1, 7, 8?] and a diadem with enamel images (Table 75, 4), similar to those known from the kurgan in d. Mutyshino of the Smolenskaya area (Savin N.I. 1930 p. 233. Table 2, 19). The men's costumes includes boots of 12th cent. form which are known from the excavations in Novgorod and Pskov.
Further study of Old-Russian clothing will, first of all, depend on the improvement of the procedures of field research and fastest inclusion of restorers for the restoration of the fabrics uncovered in excavations and other organic remains. Only joint efforts of archaeologists and restorers can give a new impetus to the deepening of our knowledge in this most interesting area.
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