Brief Glossary of Medieval Russian Clothing

Updated 18 November 2006

This is a list of garment-related terms that I've collected in one place for my own ease of reference. It is definitely a work in progress, particularly since the terminology of medieval Russian clothing is so confusing and controversial. Not all the terms listed here were used in period, but they are found in modern Russian discussions about medieval clothing so I included them.

Please feel free to send me any suggestions or questions. Alphabetization is particularly easy to mix up, since I'm jumping back and forth between Russian and English. (lkies@jumpgate.net)


References:
  • Slovar' Dalya. On-line Russian Dictionary.
  • Katzner, Kenneth. English-Russian Russian-English Dictionary. John Wiley & Sons, New York, etc. 1984
  • Kireyeva, E.V. Translated by Tatiana Nikolaevna Tumanova. The History of Costume. Enlightenment, Moscow, 1970.
  • Kolchin, B.A. and T.I. Makarova. Partially translated by Lisa Kies. Drevnaia Rus, Byt i Kultura. (Ancient Rus, Life and Culture) Publishing House “Nauka”. Moscow, 1997. [ISBN 5-02-010174-5. Shelf # fDk72 .D737 1997 at U of Iowa.]
  • Nahlik, Adam. "Ткани Новгорода" [Fabrics of Novgorod from Volume IV of Works of the Novgorod Archeological Excavation] "Труды Новгородской Археологической Экспедитии." A.B. Artsikhovskij and B.A. Kolchin. (editors) No. 123 of Материалы и Исследования по Археологии СССР. USSR Academy of Science. Moscow. 1963.
  • Ozhegov, S.I. Dictionary of Russian Language (in Russian). Russian Language, Moscow. 1990.
  • Pushkareva, Natalia. Partially translated by Lisa Kies. Zhenshchiny drevney Rusi. 1989.
  • Pushkareva, Natalia. Translated by Eve Levin. Women in Russian History. M.E. Sharpe, Armonk, New York, 1997.
  • Stamerov, K.K. Translated by Tatiana Nikolaevna Tumanova. An Illustrated History of Costume. Avenger, Kiev, 1978.
  • Rabinovich, B.A. Partially translated by Lisa Kies. Древняя Одежда Народов Восточной Европы. Nauka, Moscow, 1986.
  • Yandex. On-line Russian-English Dictionary. //lingvo.yandex.ru/
  • Zhargon. On-line Russian Encyclopedia. //www.zhargon.ru.

  • Terms

    Аграф (Agraf) - Agraffe. A fancy clasp, buckle or fastener.

    Ажурный (Azhurnyj) - Openwork. A feature of some shoes, and the name of a group of fabrics that appear to be openwork because the linen threads rotted away in the soil leaving behind the more durable wool threads.

    Аксамит (Aksamite) - The ancient name of velvet, velvety or satin brocade. Velvet according to Dal'. In 15 cent. in Rus there was navolok (pavolok?) with gold patterns/tracery. Used to sew fine clothing.

    Аламами (Alamami) - Gold or silver embossed/engraved plates/plaques used to decorate clothing. Szhenchushikh alamax are mentioned in period documents and seem to indicate these plates could be decorated with pearls.

    Алеть/аленая (Alet'/alenaya) - To turn red or scarlet./The color red or scarlet. See алой below.

    Алой (Aloi/alogo) - Ruby-colored? A French fabric? Both?

    Алтабас (Altabas) - Expensive, overall gold fabric.

    Амбурской (Amburskoj) - Used in Rabinovich '86.

    Армяк/армячный (Armyak/armyachnyj) - FAbric of camel wool made mostly Tatars with some sort of diagonal weave (Dal').

    Аршин (Arshin) - Old Russian unit of measure - approximately 28 inches.

    Атлас (Atlas) - Satin.

    Багрец (Bagrets) - Dye from bagryanka. Ancient purple; scarlet.

    Багрецовое (Bagretsovoe) - Presumably relate to bagrets.

    Багрянка (Bagryanka) - "Purple-fish", actually a mollusk.

    Байберековый (Bajberekovyj) - A type of silk fabric. Brocaded.

    Бараний (Barezhka) - From the word for ram or wild sheep. Sheepskin.

    Барежка (Barezhka) - Mitten. Also rukavitsa.

    Барма (Barma) - Wide royal collar. Necklace of golden medalions that preceded the wide collar in early Rus regalia.

    Бархата (Barkhata) - Velvet.

    Бахили (Bakhili) - A northern Russian version of lapti made in form of narrow boots. BAKHILY - 1) name was used in Russia for various types of foot-wear, for example "foot-wear of fishermen - boots with the boot tops on suspenders up to the thighs, in Siberia - dry leather stockings or boot tops, slipped over onuchi, under the bast sandals, etc; 2) female foot-wear, similar to halfboots or koty, but without the red edging

    Бахрома (Bakhroma) - Fringe.

    Бель/белье (Bel'/bel'yo) - Bleached linen fabric. See also platno.

    Билоновые (Bilonovye) - A valuable alloy of copper and silver popular in jewelry.

    Бисер (Biser) - Bead. Used in the Russian version of the saying "Don't cast pearls before swine." See also busina. (I don't know what the difference is, but I've seen them both used in one sentence so there must be a distinction.)

    Бляшка (Blyashka) - Metal plaque.

    Бобровный (Bobrovnyj) - Beaver.

    Бок (Bok) - Side or flank.

    Бора (Bora) - Assembly; fold/wrinkle/crease; a woman's collar with small folds; a strung necklace (ozherel'e) with beads (biser), beads (bus), amber, metal granules.

    Борла (Borla) - old, marked/spotted (like an animal skin?), cotton fabric (Dal').

    Борловый (Bort) - Sewn of the fur of a wild goat (Dal').

    Борт (Bort) - Chest, lapel, coat-breast.

    Бочка (Bochka) - literally, barrel - Seems to refer to the torso, or trunk, of a garment. Diminutive of Bok?

    Браной (Branoj) - A sewing/weaving technique. Intricately patterned fabric woven in a technique described by Dal' which left me completely befuddled.

    Брукишна (Brukishna) - A type of sarafan (Rabinovich).

    Брушника/брусничный (Brushnika/brusnichnyj) - Cranberry.

    Бубенчики (Bubenchiki) - Little bells.

    Бурба (Burba) - A circular felt cloak.

    Бурмицки (Burmitski) - Small freshwater pearls, sometimes imported from Iran. Aka gurmitski.

    Бурый (Buryj) - Brown

    Бусина (Busina) - Bead. See also biser. (I don't know what the difference is, but I've seen them both used in one sentence so there must be a distinction.)

    Бяз (Byaz) - A dense cotton fabric (Ozhigov). A cheap calico (Яndex). Asian, Persian, Bukhara fabric, cotton kholst...

    Валяный (Valyanyj) - Felted/fulled.

    Вареги с галицам (varegi s galitsam) - Mittens according to Rabinovich.

    В елочку (V yolochky) - Herringbone pattern.

    Венчик (Venchik) - General term for maiden's headdress? Based on flora garlands?

    Венец (Venets) - Maiden's headress taking form of a embellished nachilnik, includes designs such as battlements. Favored by more rural villagers.

    Верблюжый (verblyuzhij) - camel.

    Веретено (Vereteno) - Spindle.

    Веровочкой (verovochkoj) - refers to a "back needle" (nazad igoj, back stitch?) sewing technique. Also apparently an embroidery technique used to decorate shoes. "Vpered igloj" is the term for running stitch.

    Верхница 1 (verkhnitsa) - Linen made of upper hemp, whatever that means.

    Верхница 2 (verkhnitsa) - women's upper garment, blue krashenin sarafan, tower, teremok, attic, etc..

    Вершница (vershnitsa) - type of blue sarafan.

    Ветошь (Vetosh') - Tatters, rags. Can be used to make leg wrappings.

    Вешевой (veshevoj) - clothing.

    Височное кольцо (visochnoe kol'tso) - temple ring - Metal decorations attached to headdress, hair, or even ears to hang at the temples. Various shapes correspond to various slavic tribes. Gradually replaced by kolti.

    Вишневый (vishnyovyj) - Cherry.

    Власяниц (Vlasyanits) - Very coarse wool fabric for "hair shirts". Also used to make caftans.

    Воилок/Воилочный (voilok/voilochnyj) - Felt.

    Волосник (volosnik) - Women's cap made of netting, similar to povoinik.

    Волоченый (volochenyj) - metal formed into a wire or bat?

    Волочить (volochit') - carry, pull, pilfer (some clothing info comes from lists of stolen items).

    Вольяшный (vol'yashnyj) - said of silver buttons...

    Ворсистой (Vorsistoy) "napped"? - Tightly woven fabric with gold or silver threads similar to velvet/aksamite.

    Вошвы (Voshvy) - Decorative appliques made of fine fabrics such as aksamite/velvet/taffeta in shapes such as circles or lozenges and richly ornamented with pearls, precious stones, metal plaques, embroidery, etc.

    Вперед иглой (vpered igloj) - Running stitch.

    Впроем (vproem) - pierced, punched, term describing a type of decorative running stitch where there a long stitches on the face, and short stitches on the reverse, used in metal embroidery.

    Выбойки (vybojki) - ordinary printed fabric.

    Вязаний (Vyazanij) - "Knitted". Term in Russian actually includes crochet and related needle arts. In the context of the Middle Ages, the term refers to items made by needle weaving aka naalbinding.

    Выходной (Vykhodnoj) - Special occasion.

    Вышивка (Vyshivka) - Embroidery.

    Гвоздик (Gajtan) - Cord, plait, braid (maybe card weaving?). Used for necklaces in Rabinovich.

    Гашмика (Gashnika) - Drawstring.

    Гвоздик (Gvozdik) - Tack or small nail, used to nail on heel of shoe.

    Голошеика (Golosheika) - from golaya sheya, meaning bare neck - Description of neck treatment of some garments.

    Городками (Городки?) (Gorodkami) - The square "battlements" on the top edge of a venets according to Stamerov. (See also teremkami).

    Гривна (Grivna) - Rope-like metal necklaces for men and women.

    Гульфика (Gul'fika) - ?

    Гурмицки (Gurmitski) - Small freshwater pearls, sometimes imported from Iran. Aka burmitski.

    Далматика (Dalmatika) - The belted overdresses of ancient Russian noble women were called dalmatikami (dalmaticas) by pre-revolutionary researchers. A ceremonial garment for the nobility.

    I am considering replacing the term "dalmatika" in my personal vocabulary with the term "letnik" to be more slavic or, perhaps, "proto-letnik", since I'm starting to think that this garment, whatever it was called, was the forerunner of the fabulous garment we now know as the "letnik". See letnik.

    Двоиний шов (Dvoinij shov) - French seam aka frantsuzkij shov.

    Диогональная ткань (Diogonal'naya tkan') - Diagonal fabric?

    Длинноватый (Dlinnovatyj) - Long-ish? (Dal').

    Драпирующий (Drapiruyushchij) - Drapiruyushchix/drapes (cloaks) a traditional garment among eastern slavs that was modified in 10-11th cent with influence from Byzantium, according to post-revolutionary researchers.

    Дратва (Dratva) - Waxed thread.

    Дробница (Drobnitsa) - A hanging pendent, as for a necklace, often a round shape.

    Елочка (Yolochka as in "v elochku") - Herringbone.

    Емурлук (Emurluk) - ?.

    Епанча (Epancha) - A long, wide "ancient" circular cloak.

    Занависка/запона (Zanaviska or zapona) - Maiden's kirtle-like garment. Worn over rubakha. A naramnik.

    Запошивочный (Zaposhivochnyj) - A flat-felled seam.

    Зарукавя (Zarukavya) - Narrow ornamented cuff. See also naruchi and poruchiv.

    Застежка (Zastezhka) - Clasp or fastener.

    Заткан (Zatkan) - Woven into.?

    Завязать (Zavyazat') - To tie or bind up.

    Запастью (zapast'yu) - sleeve.

    Запорожец (zaporozhets) - ?

    Запястье (zapyast'ye) - wrist, cuff.

    Зголовье (zgolov'e) - bolster, head of bed.

    Зендяница (Zendyanitsa) - Cotton fabric widely known in Novgorod, produced in the village Zandana not far from Bukhara.

    Зев (Zev) - Weaving shed.

    Зипун (Zipun) - Homespun peasant's coat.

    Змеевик (Zmeevik) - Name used for a round cast-metal religious medallion.

    Dictionary definitions: coil, certain plants (gourd, caraway...), a talc-type dense greenish stone used to make mortars also called serpentine (hydrous magnesium silicate) - so maybe the medallion was named for the stone used to make its mold?

    Зуфный (zufnyj) - camlet (camelot), a rich fabric of medieval Asia believed to have been made of camel hair or angora.

    Железняк (zheleznyak) - literally, iron ore. Listed among medieval Russian dye-stuffs..

    Игольное вязяние/переплетение (Igol'noe vyazanie/perepletenie) - Needle knitting or weaving, aka naalbinding.

    Кабат (Kabat) - A warm, long-sleeved garment worn only at home, sewn of modest fabric, similar in function to the kaftan.

    Каблук (Kabluk) - Heel of a shoe.

    Каламани (Kalamani) - Lapti made from the raw hide used by Georgian peasants, chuvyaki.

    Калита (Kalita) - Purse or pouch. Related terms: moshna, kebenyak/kubenyak/kobenyak.

    Камха/камка (Kamkha/kamka) - Expensive Chinese imported fabric with a monochromatic pattern. Usually translated as brocade. Damask according to Яndex. (Damask is "reversible patterned fabric". Brocade is "raised overall pattern".)

    камчатный (kamchatnyj) - A kamka-like fabric.

    Кармазин (Karmazin) - A thick/dense bright red/scarlet/purple broadcloth.

    Кебеняк/кубеняк/кобеняк (kebenyak/kubenyak/kobenyak) - Bag.

    Кежей/кежья (Kezhej/kezh'ya) - A dense, dyed hemp fabric.

    Кика/кичка/кокошник (Kika/kichka/kokoshnik) - Married woman's headdress.

    Киндяк/киндячный (Kindyak/kindyachnyj) - Red kumach fabric, printed fabric. A garment made of this material, often a sarafan.

    Кисея/кисейный (Kiseya/kisejnyj) - Muslin weave fabrics, not necessarily cotton.

    Китайка (Kitajka) - A simple cotton fabric.

    Клапана (Klapana) - Flap, as of a pocket or a belt pouch.

    Клетка (Kletka) - cell, cage.

    Клетчатая ткань (Kletchataya tkan') - Checked fabric.

    Клетчатка (Kletchatka) - Cellulose (plant-based).

    Клин (Klin) - Wedge, gore, gusset.

    Кодман (Kodman) - A broadcloth women's shushun (jacket), usually blue? or a colored rubakha?

    Кожуха (Kozhukha) "sheepskin coat" - Winter coat fashionable with city-dwellers starting in 14-15th centuries. Another name for shuba.

    Колодочек (Kolodochek) - Literally "little logs" made of metal. Used to make ornamental chains for ornaments.

    Колпак (Kletchatka) - Relatively tall, pointed hat. Колта (Kolta) - Enameled metal ornament in the shape of two disks connected together at the edge (with aromatic fabrics placed in the middle?) and used much as temple rings. Gradually replaced temple rings, but seem to have gone out of use soon after the time of the Mongol Conquest.

    Комзол (Komzol) - An "old" men's upper garment, usually sleeveless (analagous to a vest).

    Конопля (Konoplya) - Hemp.

    Короб (Korob) - A basket, box, or chest.

    Королек (Korolyok) - Many meanings, probably the most relevent, "pure metal granules" for jewelry. Also korol'kovyj.

    Корта (Korta) - Women's jacket.

    Кортеля/кортель (Kortelya/kortel') - Fur-lined version of the letnik.

    Коруна (Koruna) - Maiden's headdress often decorated to resemble floral garland. Preferred by city-dwellers?

    Корзна (Korzna) - Cloak, rectangular or semi-circular, fastened over right shoulder or center front. Some authors imply that the korzna refers to cloaks fastened over the right shoulder, with the term mantiya for those that fasten in center front. Seems to have been a ceremonial garment for the nobility.

    Коса (Kosa) - Braid.

    Косой (Kosoj) - Twisted, braided, crooked. Also a type of cross (?).

    Косой кресть (Kosoj krest') - St. Andrew's cross or saltire.

    Косоворота (Kosovorota) - Men's blouse with side-fastened collar (kosoj vorot).

    Косчатой (Koschatoj) - ?

    Косчая (Koschaya) - Many meanings: braid, scythe, spit, a tall thick grass/herb good for mowing.

    Коты (Koty) - Female halfboots, with ruby-colored cloth edging; men's upper foot-wear as that overshoe, kengi, put on above bakhil, porshni or lapti.

    Кошелек (Koshelyok) - Purse or coin-purse.

    Крашенин (Krashenin) - General term for colored/dyed fabrics.

    Крашенинник (Krasheninnik) - A kind of sarafan (perhaps made of krashenin fabric?)

    Кресть телник (Krest' telnik) - Cross worn around the neck against the skin by Orthodos Rux. "Never" taken off.

    Кринами (Krinami) - ?

    Кромка (Kromka) - Selvedge.

    Кружева (Kruzheva) - Lace.

    Кубовый (Kubovyj) - Deep blue.

    Кумач (Kumach) - Fabric found in Muscovite Rus in 15-17th centuries - simple imported cotton fabric, usually alogo (ruby?) colored, now and then dark blue, earlier used for sarafan, much later for flags.

    Кумашный (Kumashnyj) - ?

    Кунтуш (Kuntush) - An old Polish and Ukrainian kaftan with wide folded sleeves.

    Кунтыш (Kuntysh) - A kind of sarafan according to Rabinovich.

    Курток (Kurtok) - A type of jacket - a traditional garment among eastern slavs that was modified in 10-11th cent with influence from Byzantium, according to post-revolutionary researchers. A type of raspashnyj.

    Куфтерной (Kufternoj) - An imported fabric from the east?

    Кушак (Kushak) - Sash.

    Лазорь/лазурь/лазоревая (Lazor'/Lazur'/Lazorevaya) - Azhure blue color or dye.

    Лал (Lal) - A valuable stone such as rubin (ruby) or yakhont (ruby/sapphire).

    Лапти (Lapti) - Shoes woven of bast and/or coarse leather strips. Take different forms in different areas of Russia. See also pleteshki and bakhili. Aka лученицы, лучаки.

    Латунь (Latun') - Brass.

    Летник (Letnik) - related to word for summer "leto", but also similar to root of words such as letet' (to fly) and letchik (pilot) - Overdress that opens in front and has long wide sleeves that leaves the bottom seam open to allow more wing-like appearance with the resulting flaps. Appears in 14-15th centuries. (But see also, dalmatika.)

    Лиловый (Lilovyj) - Purple.

    Лисица (Lisitsa) - Fox.

    Лиф (Lif) - Bodice.

    Локоть (Lokot') - Elbow, cubit.

    Лопасть (Lopast') - literally, a widened end of something, blade of a propeller - Used to describe the area of a Novgorod style kika that covers the ears.

    Луковый (Lukovyj) - Bast.

    Лундыш (Lundysh) - ?

    Лунницы (Lunnitsy) - Crescent moon shapes. A common Russian design motif. Also metal ornaments in this shape.

    Макушка (makushka) - Crown of head (left uncovered by maiden's headdresses).

    Манжета (manzheta) - buttoned on or sewn on cuff of shirt.

    Мантия (Mantiya) - The cloaks of ancient Russian noble women were called mantiyami (mantles) by pre-revolutionary researchers who drew direct analogues between princely garments and Byzantine fashion of 10-11th cent.

    Мерлушка (merlushka) - Lambskin.

    Мех (Mekh) - Fur.

    Миткаль (mitkal') - calico, muslin, unprinted fabric, chintz.

    Монисто (monisto) - Necklace.

    Мохер (mokher) - Mohair.

    Мошна (moshna) - Purse, pouch.

    Мухояр/мохаровый (mukhoyar/mukharovyj) - An old Asian fabric of cotton blended with silk or wool.

    Набедренное (Nabedrennoe) - A class of clothing that includes the poneva.

    Наволок (Navolok) - Term used in describing a fancy form of aksamite. See aksamite.

    Навесни (Navesni) - Use of accessories worn with clothing as decoration - removable cuffs and collars, for example. Contrast with nepodvizhni.

    Наголенки (nagolenki) - A type of peasant stocking without a toe or heel.

    Нагольная (Nagol'naya) - Fur coat without a fabric outer covering. Worn by Rus too poor to be able to afford fabric.

    Нагрудник (nagrudnik) - breast plate, plastron, children's bib, breast-collar of horse harness.

    Накидка (nakidka) - cape, cloak, mantlet.

    Накладки (Nakladki) "lining"/"wig" - Wide fur lining/edging - extends up to knee or up to half a yard wide. This extravagance of fur astonished foreign visitors.

    Накладная одежда (nakladnaya odezhda) - clothing put on over the head, "pull over". Versus raspashnaya clothing.

    Наплечная одежда (naplechnaya odezhda) - literally, on-shoulder clothing. Cloaks, overcoats worn over the shoulders, possibly also a wide collar.

    Нарамник (Naramnik) - Another term for zapona/zanaviska.

    In 13-15 cent. a long or short overgarment, prepared from a piece of cloth folded in half with the opening for the head, sometimes tied with the belt, on the edge it could be finished otdelana mexom.

    Наруча (Narucha) - Sleeve ornament. Wide embroidered removable cuffs. See also zarukava and poruchiv.

    Нарядный (naryadnyj) - Well-dressed, smart, elegant, fancy.

    Настрафильной (Nastrafil'noj) - ? Strafit'sya means "to happen, to make, to be realized."

    Нательная одежда (natel'naya odezhda) - Next-to-skin clothing, presumably the same as underwear.

    Нательное белье (natel'noe bel'yo) - Underwear.

    Навершник (Navershnik) - Overgarment with wide short sleeves and shorter hem (calf length) than the rubakha underneath.

    Наузольники (Nauzol'niki) - Metal badges used to make belts.

    Начилник (Nachilnik) - Another form of maiden's headdress - fillets, diadems and/or ornamented headbands.

    Нашивка (nashivka) - Stripe, chevron, something sewn on such as galloon, braid, those horizontal decorations attached to the buttons on the torso of a kaftan, etc.

    Неподвижни (Nepodvizhni) - Refers to use of embroidery directly on clothing to embelish the costume. Includes silk embroidery, metal threads, and couching. Contrast with "navesni" decoration.

    Нижное белье (Nizhnoye bel'yo) - Underwear.

    Новина (Novina) - Peasant linen, esp. unbleached/brown/harsh.

    Ноговица (Nogovitsa) - Leggings (or the upper part of shoes that covers the shin?). The Russian equivalent of chausse?

    Носок (Nosok) - Socks (not worn in period?) or the toe of a shoe.

    Обертки (Obertki) - Wraps - see onuchi.

    Обмоток (obmotok) - Leg wraps.

    Обнизой (obniznoj) - Same as povoinik.

    Обнизь/обнизью (obniz'/obniz'yu) - Same as ozherl'e? Necklace, collar, headdress?

    Обнизивались (obnizivalis') - From "nizat'"? to thread or string?

    Оборами (oborami) - Long hemp shoe ties. A "later" term?

    Образец (obrazets) - Pattern.

    Обручи (obruchi) - Hoops, often for bracelets, or temple rings, perhaps even grivna-type necklaces.

    Обшивка (obshivka) - edging, border

    Обшлаг (obshlag) - Cuff.

    Объяр (Ob"yar) - Expensive silk moire fabric often with gold or silver.

    Овчина (ovchina) - sheepskin.

    Огниво (ognivo) - Fire steel? (Worn on the belt sometimes)

    Однорядка (Odnoryadka) - literally, "one layer" - A woman's or man's outer garment of later period Rus - open down the front, with floor-length (!) sleeves that have openings at the armholes.

    Ожерля/ожерелье (Ozherlya/ozherel'e) - Necklace or wide stiffened highly decorated circular collar worn over garments. See navesni.

    Олово (Olovo) - Tin. Онучи (Onuchi) - Leg wraps, used instead of stockings. Narrow, long (up to 5 meters) pieces of fabric wrapped around the legs instead of stockings. See also portyanki, portyanitsa, podvertki, obmotok.

    Опашни (Opashni) - Overgarment made of fine smooth wool with long narrow sleeves and cut with a hem shorter in front than in back. Often worn over the shoulders. Compare with the Novgorodian shuba as described by Predslava Vydrina based on Giliarovskaia.

    Оплечье (Oplech'e) - literally, around the shoulder - A type of collar. See barma, ozherelya.

    Основа (Osnova) - literally, foundation - Warp.

    Отелька (Otel'ka) - Insole.

    Откидной (Otkidnoj) - Term used to describe the long sleeves of the odnoryadka. Dictionary definitions include: folding, collapsing, tossed aside, thrown back... Perhaps used because, with the arms through the holes at the shoulder area, the empty floor-length sleeves are "thrown back" behind.

    Оторчены (Otorcheny) - Edged, trimmed.

    Оторочка (Otorochka) - Trimming, edging.

    Отрезной (Otreznoj) - Detachable/fastened. Indicates that a garment is formed from separate bodice and skirt pieces joined with a seam at the waist.

    Отворота (Otvorota) - Lapel or cuff, as on a hat.

    Отделка (otdelka) - trim, finishing, decorating.

    Охабен (okhaben) - A type of northern Russian skirt. A synonym for ponyava.

    Очелье/чело (Ochel'e/chelo) - More highly decorated part of a headdress placed at the forehead.

    Парадный (Paradnyj) - Formal, dressy, festive.

    Павалок (Pavalok) - General term for fine imported fabrics such as velvets, brocades, taffetas, chiffons, aksamite, altabas... or

    Eastern embroidered silk fabric.

    Парча (parcha) - Brocade.

    Перевязка/повяска (perevyaska/povyaska) - maiden's headdress - silk ribbon (lenta).

    Перламутр (Perlamutr) - Mother-of-pearl.

    Перстни (Perstni) - Metal finger rings with inset stones.

    Пестряд (Pestryad) - Multi-colored checked wool fabric known from 12-13th cent. burials. Used to make ponovas.

    Петля (Petlya) - Loop, buttonhole, noose, stitch.

    Плат/платок (plat/platok) - Scarf, kerchief, veil.

    Плахта (Plakhta) - Traditional womans holiday dress of Ukrainian origin, a skirt or apron of 2 widths of woolen patterned material. Compare with poneva. Also a primitive Ukrainian fabric, striped or checked, and also a quadrangular piece of it, worn in the form of a skirt.

    Плаш (Plash) - A cloak, often edged/trimmed.

    Плашевидной (Plashevidnoj) - Cloak-like.

    Платно (Platno) - Bleached linen fabric. One of the most commonly found materials in excavations. See also bel'.

    Плетешки (Pleteshki) "woven" - Shoes woven like lapti but using wool scraps or even silk ribbon. Worn by city dwellers.

    Повой/повойник (Povoi/povoinik) - Married women's headwrap. The povoi is more of a scarf (see ubrus), while a povoinik is a relatively fitted cap. Also podubrusnik, volosnik, ochipak.

    Поволок (povolok) - Veil.

    Поворозами (povorozami) - Long leather shoe ties.

    Повязка (povyazka) - bandage, band, armlet, fillet.

    Подбить (Podbit') - To nail on, as in the heel of a shoe.

    Подвертки (Podvertki) - Leg wraps worn instead of stockings. Could be made of linen, sukno (smooth wool), ponitki (?) or rags. See onuchi, portyanki.

    Подниза (Podniza) - Openwork lace-like decoration made of pearl strands that appears in Muscovite period fashions.

    Подол (Podol) - Lap of skirt?

    Подошва (Podoshva) - Sole of a shoe.

    Подошва (podoshva) - Soft leather shoe.

    Подубрусник (podubrusnik) - Worn under ubrus and povyazka - same as povoinik, volosnik, ochilok (Rabinovich)

    Подъема (pod"ema) - Instep.

    Пол/пола/полка (pol/pola/polka) - width of fabric, flap of garment, as in the front flap/lapel, or the skirt flap (not a pocket flap - that's a klapana).

    Полотенце (Polotentse) - literally "towel" - A white linen head-scarf with embroidered and fringed ends worn by women with one end hanging in front and one end hanging back, tied at the nape of the neck (?). Apparently is not the same as an ubrus. Maybe a type of ubrus, depending on whether you're a lumper or a splitter.

    Полотияное переплетение (Polotiyanoe perepletenie) - Plain/tabby weave.

    Полотно (polotno) - Towel? Hem? (one of the "decorated edges" in a garment description I found).

    Полочек (polochek) - Decoration for porshnoi shoes. Woven (pleteshok) somehow?

    Полузапожки (Poluzapozhki) - Half boots.

    Полушубка (polushubka) - A "half" shubka. A short sheepskin coat.

    Поля (polya) - Brim of a hat.

    Понева/понява (Ponyova/ponyava) - Woman's wrap skirt. A type of "nabedrennoe" clothing.

    Портище (Portishche) - "Lace on portische, sewn with gold and silver". Item found passed on in wills. Shoes?

    Портки (portki) - Pants or leg wraps?

    Портно (Portno) - Narrow coarse linen for peasant and work rubakhas.

    Порты (Porty) - In 10-13th cent. Rus, narrow (not loose) ankle-length trousers that narrow toward the bottom. Used as a term for undertrousers in Rabinovich's discussion of 13th-17th Russian clothing (he uses the term shtany for the overtrousers).

    Портянки/портяница (Portyanki/portyanitsa) - Leg wraps worn under shoes instead of stockings. Measure 1.5 arshin (i.e. 42 in ?). See onuchi, podvertki. Zhargon says worn instead of, or over, socks.

    Поручив (Poruchiv) - Decorative cuff. See also zarukava and narucha.

    Поршни/постоли (Porshni/postoli) - Leather shoes. Shoes of one or a few pieces of leather (usually of horsehide, but the better ones were of pig), gathered at the ankle with a small strap; usually worn in summer, in mowing/the meadow. Originate in ancient Greece as soft leather footwear usually worn by paupers per zhargon.

    Посконь/посконный (poskon'/poskonnyj) - hemp.

    Потаич (potaich [sic]) - slip-stitch (goes with the flat-felled seam).

    Привески (Priveski) - A general term for metal ornaments including: temple rings, earrings, chatelaines, and amulets, but tends to be used mostly for amulets and chatelaines, while the temple rings are called visochnye kol'tsa, and earrings are called ser'gi in informatin about medieval Russian costume.

    Привозной (Privoznoj) - Imported.

    Приволок (privolok) - a short, wide cloak that replaced the korzna

    Пристяжные (pristyazhnye) - Fastener.

    Пришва (prishva) - "head" of a boot?

    Пришивка (prishivka) - ?

    Продержки (proderzhki) - "passed through" - colored threads passed through holes in leather of shoes for decoration? Прореха (Prorekha) literally, a tear or break - In clothing the notch of a lapel or a cuff.

    Протрава (Protrava) - Mordant.

    Пряжка (Pryazhka) - Buckle.

    Продублированы (Produblirovany) - literally, traced or doubled - Technique of tracing the seams/edges of rubakhas with red threads.

    Прошвы (proshvy) - embroidery/decoration for shoes.

    Прялка (Pryalka) - Distaff or spinning wheel.

    Пурпурный (Purpurnyj) - Crimson, purple.

    Пушки (pushki) - Mordvinian earrings, pendants of fluff/down/white fur (Dal')

    Пята (pyata) - heel.

    Распашмой (Raspashnoj) - Garments that open down the front, usually open all the way to the hem.

    The overdresses of ancient Russian noble women were called raspashnyye (translated as chasubles) by pre-revolutionary researchers who drew direct analogues between princely garments and Byzantine fashion of 10-11th cent.
    A general category of overgarment that includes specific items such as the xalatov, kurtok, etc.
    Dictionary definitions from Ozhigov include: a special alternating arrangement of oarsmen, clothing that is open down the front, and things related to plowing.

    Ремень (Remen') - Belt or strap.

    Ремешок (Remeshok) - Small strap. Diminutive of remen'.

    Ризы (Rizy) - Holiday garment. Apparently the same as raspashnyj or xilu (khilu).

    Рубаха (Rubakha) - Linen (rarely silk) shift or tunic. Fundamental Russian garment. Also called sorochka.

    Рубец (Rubets) - Welt, hem.

    Рукавица (Rukavitsa) - Mitten. Also barezhka.

    Рубин (rubin) - ruby.

    Рубчик (Rubchik) - Rib or ridge on material.

    Руно (runo) - fleece, wool.

    Ряски (Ryaski) - "duckweed" - Decorative metal chains, usually dangling from the temples to support kolti and temple

    Ряси (Ryasi) - Fringe of beads/pearls/precious stones strung on thread in various arrangements developed over time. (Precursor of podniza?)

    Сажень (sazhen') - a measure of length roughly equivalent to 7 feet. Also a type of ornament mentioned in the Domostroi, but see the sazhona below.

    Сажона (sazhona) - refers to the pearling on the voshvy of a letnik...

    Самоцвет (Samotsvet) - Semi-precious stone.

    Сапожек (Sapozhek) - Boots.

    Сарафан (sarafan) - A sleeveless upper indoor women's garment of various forms some of which resemble an "apron dress".

    Саржевное переплетение (Sarzhevnoe perepletenie) - Serge/twill weave.

    Сборка (sborka) - gathers, assembly.

    Свинец (Svinets) - Lead. Свита (Svita) - Long-sleeved wool overgarment, often fur-lined for winter.

    Свитка (Svitka) - little svita. Yet another term for sarafan according to Rabinovich.

    Сердолик/сердоликовый (Serdolik/serdolikovyj) - red or orange semi-precious stone, a type of chalcedony, carnelian, sard.

    Серьга (Ser'ga) - Earring. Сермяга/серячни (Sermyaga/seryachni) - Rough homespun wool fabric used in peasant clothing.

    Сермяжный (sermyazhnyj) - twill.

    Скань (Skan') - filigree.

    Скатерть (Skatert') - tablecloth, also a plat or shirinka "to cover a table/meal".

    Складка (Skladka) - fold, crease, pleat.

    Скорлат (Skorlat) - Smooth imported wool fabric. French alogo?

    Смурый (Smuryj) - dark, blended color (brown-black-gray), peasant broadcloth of mixed dark wool (Dal').

    Сон-травы (Son-travy) "dream/sleep herb" - Source of blue dye.

    Сорочка/сорочека/срачица/сороцица (Sorochka/sorocheka/srachitsa/sorotsitsa) - Loose shift worn as base layer of clothing. Generally made of linen. Also called a rubakha. Women's underwear.

    Сорочка ночная (Sorochka nochnaya) - Night shirt. According to zhargon, appeared in Gothic period, before that time slept either nude or in the same clothes they wore during the day, but sorochka became the usual evening clothes only in the 19th century.

    Спрядывали (Spryadyvali) - Fine spun-gold thread with linen.

    Стаметная (Stametnaya) - ?

    Столбунец (stolbunets) - a girl's fur hat.

    Стопа (Stopa) - Foot. As in something that Russian women's clothes should be short enough to show.

    Стык (Styk) - Joint/seam of fabric?

    Сукман (Sukman) - a "sukonnyj" kaftan, or broadcloth sarafan, something made of sukmanina.

    Сукманина (Sukmanina) - peasant half-wool homespun fabric, wool weft on linen warp, etc.

    Сукно (Sukno) - Smooth woolen cloth. Can be used to make podvertki (leg wraps) and overgarments.

    Суконный (Sukonnyj) - cloth.

    Суровый (Suroovyj?) - unbleached, brown, harsh.

    Талия (Taliya) - Waist. "В талию" means fitted at the waist.

    Тачать (tachat') - to stitch.

    Тачным (tachnym) - stitches?

    Телятина/телячный (telyatina/telyachnyj) - Calf, veal.

    Темя (temya) - crown of head.

    Теремчатой (teremchatoj) - ?

    Теремками (teremkami) - pointed "battlements" on upper edge of the venets per Stamerov, vs gorodkami. Supposed to be teremki?

    Тесьма (tes'ma) - braid, also term used for the products of card weaving.

    Ткацкий станок (Tkatskij stanok) - Loom.

    Толстый (Tolstyj) - Thick or heavy.

    Тонкий (Tonkij) - Thin, fine.

    Торлоп (torlop) - fur-lined letnik (i.e. kortel') per Rabinovich.

    Травчатый (travchatyj) - flowered.

    Тулуп (tulup) - sheepskin coat.

    Тълстины (T"lstiny) - Unbleached linen fabric. See also xlast/xolst.

    Убрус/убора (Ubrus/ubora) - Veil or head scarf worn by married women. Also known as povoi.

    Увивка/увивок (uvivka/uvivok) - ?

    Уток (Utok) - Weft.

    Узел (Uzel) - Knot, or junction.

    Узчиной (uzchinoj) - tight/dense kholst fabric.

    Уток (utok) - weft, woof. (Osmova is the warp).

    Фата (Fata) - Veil, bridal veil.

    Фалда (Falda) - Coat tail.

    Фиолетовый (Fioletovyj) - Violet, purple.

    Халатов (Xalatov/khalatov) (pronounce khalatov) - An "oriental robe" a traditional garment among eastern slavs that was modified in 10-11th cent with influence from Byzantium, according to post-revolutionary researchers. A type of raspashnyj.

    Хамлет (khamlet) - a kind of plush fabric, from khaml meaning nap, pile. See also zufnyj.

    Хилу (Xilu (khilu) - "Oriental" silk overgarment/robe mentioned by Ibn Fadlan. Apparently the same garment as the "rizy" or chasuble. See rashpashnoj.

    Хитона (Xitona/khitona) - The loose clothes of ancient Russian noble women were called xitonami (chitons) by pre-revolutionary researchers who drew direct analogues between princely garments and Byzantine fashion of 10-11th cent.

    Хласт/Холст (Xlast/xolst) (khlast/kholst) - Unbleached, often homewoven, linen (and also hemp or cotton) fabric. Can be translated as canvas. Uzchinoj is tight kholst. See also t"lstiny.

    Цеп/цепочка (Tsep or tsepochka) - Chain. A tsepochka would be a more delicate chain.

    Чело (Chelo) - See ochel'e.

    Челобутный (Chelobutnyj) - ?

    Черевья/черевички (Cherev'ya/cherevichki) - Porshnoi (shoes) made of the more delicate leather from the belly (chreva) of a hide.

    Червец (Chervets) - Coccides, refers to scale insects/dyes related to cochineal. True cochineal was found in Mexico in the 1500s by the Spaniards, so other related dyes were used in most of SCA period - lac, kermes, Polish cochineal...

    Червчатой (Chervchatoj) - Derived from chervets above?

    Черевик/черевики (Cherevik/chereviki) - Shoes (made of belly leather?).

    Чермный (Chermnyj) - A dark/dull red (also an old term for red hair).

    Чернильные орешки (Chernil'nye oreshki) - Oak gall (used in dying).

    Черпец (Cherpets) - A woman's headdress for those of high rank.

    Чола (Chola) - Type of headdress. See nachilnik.

    Чрева (Chreva) - Belly of an animal.

    Чуга (Chuga) - An "ancient" riding garment.

    Чулок (Chulok/chulki) - Stockings. Term shows up in discussions of what was worn on the legs instead of stockings. I have seen contradictory documentation of stockings in early period garb. Other "stocking" terms: nagolenki, nogovitsa.

    Шапка (Shapka) - Hat.

    Шерсть (Sherst') - wool, hair, fur.

    Шиденной (Shidennoy) - Refers to colored silk rubakhas worn on holidays by nobility in later period.

    Шиколотка (Shikolotka) - Ankle.

    Ширинка (Shirinka) - width of cloth, towel, handkerchief, apron without a bodice, applique, insert, piece...

    Шить (Shit') - To sew. To embroider.

    Шнурок (Shnurok) - Shoelace. Lace.

    Шовары (Shovary) - Some sort of men's trousers or undergarment in later period? Seen in an email on SIG and not yet found in my references.

    Штаны (Shtany) - Pants.

    Шуба/шубка (Shuba/shubka) "fur coat" - Fine winter overgarment with narrow, extremely long sleeves. Possibly developed in 14-15th centuries, or just a later term for a fancy svita? See also opashni.

    Шубка (Shubka) - little shuba. Another term for sarafan according to Rabinovich.

    Швами (Shvami) - Decoration for porshnoi shoes. Woven (pleteshok) somehow?

    Швензы (Shvenzy) - Used as part of the description of the main hoop of sergi-trojchatki (three-pendant earrings).

    Шушун (shushun) - Sarafan.

    Янтарь (yantar') - amber, actually appears rather little in discussion of Rus clothing.

    Яхонт (yakhont) - ruby or sapphire (chemically these are very similar gems).


    If you have any insight on the above words, or any questions, please share them. lkies@jumpgate.net
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