Russian Interaction with Foreign Lands

Kievan Period

Another work-in-progress
Updated 11 July 2008

9th Century:

    According to the Primary Chronicle, the first prince Rurik was a foreigner, one of the Rus, a Varangian tribe like the Danes, Swedes, English and Gotlanders. In the 20th century, archaeologists discovered that the settlement of Ladoga, whose foundation has been ascribed to Rurik, was established in the mid-8th century. Earthenware, household utensils, and types of buildings from the period of Rurik's foundation are similar to those prevalent in Jutland at that time. [Wikipedia]
    There is another theory that Rurik, on account of common intermarriages between Varangians and Slavic women, was of mixed Slavic-Varangian descent. This theory is based on the information of the first modern historian of Russia, Vasily Tatishchev (a Rurikid himself), who claimed that Rurik was of Wendish extraction. Those who assume good faith on Tatishchev's part point out that he based his account on the lost Ioachim Chronicle. [Wikipedia]
    A DNA research project by Professor Andrzej Bajor of Poland, under the Familytree DNA Project, seeks to more accurately identify Rurik, while trying to find his modern descendants. So far, only one modern Rurikid prince, residing in Paris, has agreed to take this DNA test. Unfortunately, he only took the incomplete 12-marker test, but the results indicate that his male line originated in Uppland province in Sweden. Professor Bajor thinks that Rurik's ethnicity may have been Finno-Ugrian, because the population of Uppland at that time was mostly Finnish and Saami. Several Finns who have taken this DNA test share 10 of the 12 markers of this modern Rurikid prince, and are also related to each other. [Wikipedia]
    The only Hrörek described in Western chronicles was Rorik of Dorestad, a konung from the royal house of Hedeby. He was born about 810/820 to Ali Anulo, 9th King of Hedeby. Frankish chroniclers mention that he received lands in Friesland from the Emperor Louis I. This was not enough for him, and he started to plunder neighbouring lands. The Emperor was enraged and stripped him of all his possessions in 860. After that Roerik disappears from the Western sources for a time. And at that very moment, in 862, the Russian Rurik arrives in the Eastern Baltic, builds the fortress of Ladoga and later moves to Novgorod. Roerik of Dorestad reappeared in Frankish chronicles in 870, when his Friesland demesne was returned to him by Charles the Bald; in 882 he is already mentioned as dead. The Russian chronicle places the death of Rurik of Novgorod at 879. According to Western sources, the ruler of Friesland was converted to Christianity by the Franks. This may have parallels with the Christianization of the Rus', as reported by Patriarch Photius in 867. [Wikipedia]

10th Century:

    902 AD Varangian Rus mentioned serving in Byzantine naval expedition to Crete. Rus also serve Khazars as mercenaries. [Jelisavcic]

    904-7 AD Chronicle reports Oleg campaign from Kyiv against Byzantium -draws troops from as far as Chud tribes - result new peace treaty, but this is not in Byzantine sources. [Jelisavcic]

    909 AD With Varyag allies the Rus druzhina captures Khazar fort Abezgun on the Caspian. [Jelisavcic]

    911-2 AD Second Treaty between Oleg, (Kyiv Rus) and Byzantium. Text included in Russian chronicle. [Jelisavcic]

    913 AD Prince Igor campaign via Crimea and Tmutorakhan to Caspian. [Jelisavcic]

    914 AD Prince Igor campaign across Caucasus, victorious Rus troops ambushed by Khazars on return trip. [Jelisavcic]

    915 AD Pecheneg appear before Kyiv for first time in force. Prince Igor signs peace treaty with them establishing a frontier between the Don and Dniester. [Jelisavcic]

    920 AD War between Pecheneg and Igor of Kyiv. [Jelisavcic]

    In 913 and 944, the Rus plundered the Arabs in the Caspian Sea during the Caspian expeditions. [Wikipedia]

    935-41 AD Igor (Ingvar) unsuccessful Kyivan Rus naval campaign against Byzantium, defeated by naval use of "Greek fire". Possibly instigated by Khazars. [Jelisavcic]

    Igor twice besieged Constantinople, in 941 and 944, and in spite of his fleet being destroyed by Greek fire, concluded with the Emperor a favourable treaty whose text is preserved in the chronicle. [Wikipedia]

    943 AD Kyivan Rus campaign of Igor Rurikovich against Khazars via Sudak and Tmutorakhan across Caucasus, initially successful, but later defeated. [Jelisavcic]

    944-45 AD Chronicle notes - Igor campaign to Danube, he first signs alliance with Pecheneg, threatens war against Byzantium. Subsequent treaty with Byzantine empire includes conditions on Crimea prohibits Rus attack on Chersonesus -Rus want Byzantine silk, Rus trade with Pecheneg important. Treaty lists many Scandinavian names in delegation. But campaign may be myth. [Jelisavcic]

    945 AD Control of Crimea disputed between Svyatoslav and Khazars - Prince Svyatoslav attacks Chersonesus. [Jelisavcic]

    946 AD Renewal of peace treaty between Rus and Byzantine Empire. [Jelisavcic]

    947 AD Olga establishes trading posts and collects tribute as far as Novgorod and Msta and Luga rivers. [Jelisavcic]

    950 AD Constantine Porphyrogenitus writes that Patzinaks occupy Russia and Crimea - Patzinaks replace Khazars in north Crimea steppe, Byzantines regain power over Goths at Doros (Mangup-kale). [Jelisavcic]

    Olga, widow of Igor, was the first Rus ruler to convert to Christianity, in 945 or in 957. The ceremonies of her formal reception in Constantinople were minutely described by Emperor Constantine VII in his book De Ceremoniis. Following her baptism she took the Christian name Yelena, after the reigning Empress Helena Lekapena. [Wikipedia]

    954-57 AD (Chronicle dates this trip to 948-55- Byzantine record is 957) Olga visits Byzantium, converts to Christianity. [Jelisavcic]

    954 AD Rus troops in Byzantine army in Syria which lost battle of Hadath. [Jelisavcic]

    Seven Latin sources document Olga's embassy to Emperor Otto I in 959. The continuation of Regino of Prüm mentions that the envoys requested the Emperor to appoint a bishop and priests for their nation. The chronicler accuses the envoys of lies, commenting that their trick was not exposed until later. Thietmar of Merseburg says that the first archbishop of Magdeburg, before being promoted to this high rank, was sent by Emperor Otto to the country of the Rus (Rusciae) as a simple bishop but was expelled by pagans. The same data is duplicated in the annals of Quedlinburg and Hildesheim, among others. [Wikipedia]

    959 AD Olga contacts King Otto I, asks for German bishops. Bishop sent in 962. [Jelisavcic]

    Sviatoslav I is famous for his incessant campaigns in the east and south, which precipitated the collapse of two great powers of Eastern Europe—Khazaria and the First Bulgarian Empire; he also subdued the Volga Bulgars, the Alans, and numerous East Slavic tribes, and at times was allied with the Pechenegs and Magyars. His tutor was a Varangian named Asmud. [Wikipedia]

    965 AD (960?) Byzantine governor (strategos) of Chersonesus asks Svyatoslav for aid against Khazars - Svyatoslav campaign to Don - enroute he attacks Volga Bolgars - He raids Belya Vesh, Itil and Sarkel and Tmutorakhan, captures Chersonesus also. He possibly signed agreement with Pecheneg before crossing their territory. He allies with Ozhuz (Torks) for campaign. One purpose is to gain tribute from Viatchi on Oka by removing their Khazar overlords. He also conquers Yasians and Kasogians in Taman-Kuban area. [Jelisavcic]

    966-67 AD Svyatoslav campaign into Bulgaria to Danube taking 80 towns. - First peace treaty signed at Preslav on Danube [Jelisavcic]

    967-8 AD Byzantines arrange for Pecheneg to attack Kyiv to open campaign behind Svyatoslav. He rushes back and Pecheneg retire. [Jelisavcic]

    968 AD Svyatoslav campaign against Volga Bolgars and Khazars. [Jelisavcic]

    969 AD Second Bulgar war, Pecheneg besiege Kyiv. Svyatoslav hurries to defend city. [Jelisavcic]

    970's AD Polotsk now important trade and transship point with Scandinavian lord, Gnezdovo also becoming important. Baltic trade shifting more from Volga - Central Asia to Dneper - Byzantium. [Jelisavcic]

    Lambert of Hersfeld records that, on the Easter of 973, the Holy Roman Emperor was visited by envoys from Rus' (legati gentium Ruscorum) during the reign of Yaropolk I. In later centuries it was said that Yaropolk I also exchanged ambassadors with the Pope. The Chronicon of Adémar de Chabannes and the life of St. Romuald (by Pietro Damiani) document how St. Bruno of Querfurt was sent to Rus (Latin: Russia) and succeeded in converting a local king (one of three brothers who ruled the land) to Christianity. As both texts are rife with anachronisms, Vladimir Parkhomenko reasons that Bruno's deeds were conflated with those of his predecessors, Adalbert of Prague and several anonymous missionaries active in Eastern Europe during Otto II's reign. [Wikipedia]

    970 AD Pecheneg and Hungarians participate initially on Svyatoslav's side in campaign against Byzantium. He burns Philippopolus - Peace treaty Rus and Byzantium. also treaty Rus and Bulgars (Tsar Boris II and Prince Svyatoslav). [Jelisavcic]

    971 AD Svyatoslav renews war and loses battle (siege) at Dorostol (Arcadiopolis) against Byzantine John Tzimisces, he is forced to sign treaty with them. Byzantine fleet on Danube and cavalry overland. Svyatoslav starts return trip, forced to delay by Pecheneg control of Dniper. [Jelisavcic]

    972 AD Svyatoslav is ambushed and killed by Pecheneg warriors at Dniper rapids. They were likely incited to do this by Byzantines. [Jelisavcic]

    972 AD Rus- Byzantine peace treaty, Rus pledge not to attack Chersonesus. [Jelisavcic]

    976-78 AD Yaropolk I Svyatoslavich, prince of Kyiv, attacks brother, Oleg, at Ovruch. Oleg dies during siege. Vladimir flees Novgorod for Scandinavia to recruit Varangian troops. [Jelisavcic]

    During his pagan years, Vladimir I "the Great" had a multitude of wives and concubines, some of them foreign.

    Norse sagas mention that in his early days ruling Novgorod, Vladimir I "the Great" had a Varangian wife named Olava or Allogia. According to Snorri Sturluson the runaway Olaf Tryggvason was sheltered by Allogia in her house; she also paid a large fine for him. If she is a real person, Vladimir could have married her during his exile in Scandinavia in the late 970s. Apparently, there is an account in Ingvars saga (in a part called Eymund's saga) which says that Eric VI of Sweden married his daughter to a 'konung of fjord lying to the East from Holmgard" who may have been Vladimir. [Wikipedia]
    During his unruly youth, Vladimir begot his eldest son, Sviatopolk, by a Greek nun originally captured by Svyatoslav I in Bulgaria and married to Yaropolk I. [Wikipedia]
    Vladimir apparently had a Czech wife, whose name is given by Vasily Tatishchev as Malfrida. [Wikipedia]
    Another wife was a Bulgarian lady, whose name is given by Tatishchev as Adela. Historians have disagreed as to whether she came from Volga Bulgaria or from Bulgaria on the Danube. According to the Primary Chronicle, both Boris and Gleb were her children. (This is debated.) [Wikipedia]
    In 988, after taking the town of Chersonesos in Crimea, Vladimir I negotiated for the hand of the emperor Basil II's sister, Anna Porphyrogeneta. Vladimir was baptized at Cherson, taking the Christian name of Basil out of compliment to his imperial brother-in-law; the sacrament was followed by his wedding with Anna. [Wikipedia]
    Anna died four years before Vladimir, yet Thietmar of Merseburg, writing from contemporary accounts, mentions that Boleslaw I of Poland captured Vladimir's widow during his raid on Kiev in 1018. The emigre historian Nicholas Baumgarten referred to the controversial record of the "Genealogia Welforum" and the "Historia Welforum Weingartensis" that one daughter of Count Kuno von Oenningen (future Duke Konrad of Swabia) by "filia Ottonis Magni imperatoris" (Otto the Great's daughter; possibly Rechlinda Otona [Regelindis], claimed by some as illegitimate daughter and by others legitimate, born from his first marriage with Edith of Wessex) married "rex Rugorum" (king of Russia). He interpreted this evidence as pertaining to Vladimir's last wife. It may be that the only child of this alliance was Dobronega, or Maria, who married Casimir I of Poland between 1038 and 1042 and she was still young enough to bear at least five children, including two future Polish kings, it is thought probable that she was Vladimir's daughter by the last marriage. Some sources claimed Agatha, the wife of Edward the Exile of England, was another daughter of this marriage and full-sister of Dobronegra. Their marriage took place about the same time of Dobronegra's wedding (the date of birth of her first child support this) so perhaps this was double wedding of sisters. This would help resolve the question about the conection between Agatha and the Holy Roman Empire claimed by several medieval sources. [Wikipedia]
    One of Vladimir's daughters, Predslava, was captured by Boleslaw I in Kiev and taken to Poland as a concubine. Another daughter, Premyslava, is attested in numerous (though rather late) Hungarian sources as the wife of Duke Ladislaus. [Wikipedia]

    976 AD Yaropolk Svyatoslavich war against Pecheneg ends with big victory for Rus. [Jelisavcic]

    977 or 79 AD? Yaropolk brings Pecheneg prince Ildeu into service? [Jelisavcic]

    978 - 1015 (?) AD Vladimir I Svyatoslavich, Prince of Kyiv, he brings 6000 Varangian Norse with him, regains Novgorod, then besieges Rogvald and takes Polotsk, kills Rogvald and sons, marries Rogneda, marches south taking towns to Kyiv. Yaropolk flees to Pechenegs. [Jelisavcic]

    981 AD Bulgars Samuel II, defeat Byzantine army (Basil II), Empire now too weak to defend Chersonesus and Crimea from Khazars [Jelisavcic]

    981 AD Vladimir I campaign againt Lyashski land and Cherven and Peremishl Karpatski to control routes to Prague and Cracow, also subdues Viatichi (983) Radimichi (984) and Yatviagians (a Prussian tribe called Sudauer or Sudovians) (984). [Jelisavcic]

    981-85 AD Vladimir I campaigns into Khazar Khaganate. [Jelisavcic]

    984 AD Treaty between Kyiv and Volga Bolgar. [Jelisavcic]

    985 AD Vladimir's first campaign against Volga Bolgars with Dobrynia's druzhina from Novgorod. Then new peace treaty. [Jelisavcic]

    987-8 AD Vladimir assists Byzantine emperor Basil II with 6000 troops in civil war against Bardas Skleros and Bardas Phocas - beginning of Varangian Guard. [Jelisavcic]

    988 AD ? Pecheneg prince Metiga enteres Kyivan service of Vladimir. [Jelisavcic]

    988-9 AD Prince Vladimir captures Chersonesus, is baptized, marries Byzantine princess Anna and returns city to Byzantium - He sends his son, Mstislav to rule Tmutorokan on Taman Penn. [Jelisavcic]

    989 AD Varangian troops win battle of Abydos on 13 April for Basil II. [Jelisavcic]

    989 AD Peace treaty between Rus and Stefan I of Hungary as part of general treaty with Polish King. [Jelisavcic]

    989 AD Beginning of another intermitant Kyivan- Pecheneg war. Kyivans build frontier defenses and fortified frontier towns. Fortify Belgorod and Periaslavl and 100 forts and towns, inner set of forts around Kyiv. [Jelisavcic]

    992 or 93 AD Pecheneg campaign against Rus, battle on the Trubezh river near Peryeyaslavl. Russian victory by Vladimir I and then three year truce with Pecheneg. In thanksgiving Vladimir founds Peryeyaslavl. [Jelisavcic]

    994-6 AD About 6 August, Pecheneg, seeking revenge, attack on Vasilevo town near Kyiv and almost capture Vladimir while defeating his druzhina. [Jelisavcic]

    997 AD Chronicle reports about war with Pecheneg who capture some fortified posts and besiege Kyiv. Vladimir campaigns to Novgorod. Second Vladimir campaign against Volga Bolgars. Pecheneg besiege Belgorod. Vladimir begins construction of the extensive "zemiv val" earthen and log palisade fortification lines across steppe routes along the Sula, and Trubyzh rivers and Irpen river and Stugna river right bank Dniper. Vladimir resettling people from north into region south of Kyiv, 500 kms of ramparts. Major fort at Voin. [Jelisavcic]

    998 AD Peace treaty between Vladimir I and Stefan I Ugorski, Boleslav I Khrabri great Poland, and Boleslav II Bogemski. [Jelisavcic]

    999 AD Varangian troops in Byzantine army capture Emesa in Syria. [Jelisavcic]

11th Century:
    Sviatopolk I Vladimirovich "the Accursed" (c. 980–1019) Sviatopolk's mother was a Greek nun captured in Bulgaria and married to Yaropolk I. When Yaropolk was murdered, the new sovereign, Vladimir I, raped his wife. Thus, Sviatopolk was probably the eldest of Vladimir's sons, although the issue of his parentage has been questioned. Vladimir arranged his marriage to the daughter of the Polish king Boleslaus I. The young princess came with Reinbern, the Bishop of Calabria, whose may have intended to split the Russian Orthodox Church and the Greek Orthodox Church and subdue the former to the Roman Catholic Church.[Wikipedia]
    Sviatopolk feuded with his brothers and after one defeat, fled to Poland. Later, he returned to Rus, and defeated Yaroslav with the help from his father-in-law, Boleslaus I. He and his army remained in Rus for several months. [Wikipedia]

    1000 AD Varangian troops in Byzantine campaign in Armenia. [Jelisavcic]

    1000 AD Byzantine success against Bulgars in war with Tsar Samuel in Macedonia, with Varangian Guard. [Jelisavcic]

    1001 AD Vladimir's son, Izyaslav, dies at Polotsk. Izyaslav is succeeded by Bryachislav. This family line continues to rule Polotsk. [Jelisavcic]

    1001 AD Battle with Pecheneg. Their khan Rodman captured POW along with three of his sons.? [Jelisavcic]

    In 1019, Yaroslav I "the Wise" married Irene/Ingegerd Olofsdotter, daughter of the king of Sweden. [Wikipedia]

    1011-14 AD Basil's army with Varangians in Italy to quell uprising, they capture Bari. [Jelisavcic]

    1013 AD Creation of Polish-Pecheneg alliance directed against Rus. Their united campaign against Rus under command of Polish prince Bolyeslav I. Then peace treaty with Bolyeslav. [Jelisavcic]

    1015 AD Division of western part of Khazar empire between Rus (Kyiv) and Byzantine Empire. Byzantines retake Crimea and Rus gains control of north Black Sea coast. - Reports on appearance of Pecheneg on Rus borders. Russian troops under command of prince Boris Vladimirovich campaign against them, but no contact or battle occurs. Vladimir sends son, Mstislav Udaloi, as governor of Tmutorakhan. [Jelisavcic]

    1015 AD Vladimir dies, his eldest son, Svyatopolk, whose wife is daughter of Boleslav I, is in prison, son Boris of Rostov is on campaign against Pecheneg, son Gleb is at Murom, son Svyatoslav is in Derevlian land and son Yaroslav is at Novgorod. Vladimir was on the point of attacking Yaroslav because the latter was not paying tribute to Kyiv. Yaroslav was busy hiring Varangians. [Jelisavcic]

    1015-19 AD Svyatopolk I, Vladimirovich, Okayannnii, prince of Kyiv, he has Boris, Gleb and Svyatoslav murdered, Yaroslav flees to get Varangian troops. [Jelisavcic]

    1015-16 AD Svyatopolk Okayanni (Vladimirovich) signs treaty with Pecheneg trying to enlist them to help against other Kyivan princes. Yaroslav Vladimirovich leads Novgorod- Varangian druzhina against them and defeats them near Lubich on Dniper by forcing Svyatopolk's troops onto ice that breaks. Svyatopolk flees to Poland. [Jelisavcic]

    1015-30 AD Struggle between sons of Vladimir creates deterioration of relations with Chud and Let tribes. [Jelisavcic]

    1016 AD Kyivan Rus -Byzantine alliance in Crimea - Emperor Basil II sends fleet commanded by Admiral Mongos Andronikos against Khazars in Crimea with Rus aid captures leader, George Tsulus (Toulos), Byzantines regain Bospor and Kerch. [Jelisavcic]

    1018 AD Svyatpolk arranges temporary alliance with Boleslav I Khrabri of Poland, Hungarians and Pecheneg against Yaroslav, returns to Kyiv in July,. Yaroslav is defeated and flees to Novgorod. Poles sack Kyiv. After Poles leave, Yaroslav returns with larger army and Svyatopolk flees again to Pechenegs. [Jelisavcic]

    1019 AD Svyatopolk again brings Pechenegs against Rus. Battle on Al'ta River, a tributary of the Trubesh. Decisive victory for Yaroslav Vladimirovich. Svyatopolk flees to Poland, dies enroute. [Jelisavcic]

    1022 AD Mstislav campaign against the Kasog tribe in Caucasus, he kills their leader, Rededia, using knife during a wrestling match. [Jelisavcic]

    1030 AD Yaroslav I begins fortification on northern border - Yuriev (Tartu), Gersik (Yisik) to defend from incursions from overseas - Scandinavians who attack Polotsk on West Dvina - Polotsk princedom in war with Lets and Lithuanians on lower West Dvina, build fortress at Koknes. [Jelisavcic]

    1031 AD Yaroslav I , takes Ruthenia from Poland, war of Kyiv Rus against Lyashski lands, Haraldr Sigurdarson arrives Kyiv serves Yaroslav in campaign against Kiasi and capture of Ceruin. [Jelisavcic]

    1034 AD Pecheneg fall on Kyiv with large army but Rus defeat them near city on Setoml river, then Torks. [Jelisavcic]

    1034 AD Haraldr Sigurdarson arrives with Varangian detachment via Kyiv to Constantinople. [Jelisavcic]

    1036 AD Last campaign of Pecheneg against Rus. Battle near Kyiv. Rus army under Prince Yaroslav Vladimirovich delivers total destruction to Pecheneg so that in following 82 years they do not appear in chronicles. They move west out of the region between the rivers.[Jelisavcic]

    1037 AD Period of Rus-Byzantine cooperation, Yaroslav and Emperor in military alliance against nomads, Rus maintains base at Tmutorakhan. [Jelisavcic]

    1038 -40 AD Vladimir I campaign agasinst Yatvyagi, in Lithuania and Masovia. [Jelisavcic]

    1038-41 AD Haraldr leads Varangians in Byzantine army campaign to Sicily and Italy.[Jelisavcic]

    1041 AD Varangians in Byzantine campaign in Bulgaria . [Jelisavcic]

    1042 AD Haraldr departs Constantinople, marries Elazabeta Yaroslavna in Kyiv and returns to be king of Norway.[Jelisavcic]

    1042-55 AD Constantine IX, Monomachos, Byzantine emperor, continual war with Normans in Italy, sends Varangians. [Jelisavcic]

    1043 AD Yaroslav the Wise sends last Rus naval campaign against Byzantium, unsuccessful. [Jelisavcic]

    In 1043, Yaroslav I made an agreement with King Casimir I of Poland that recognized Cherven as part of Kiev. The agreement was sealed with a double marriage—Casimir to Dobronega/Maria, Yaroslav's sister; and Iziaslav, son of Yaroslav, to Gertrude, Casimir's sister. [Wikipedia]
    In 1043 Yaroslav I staged a naval raid against Constantinople led by his son Vladimir and general Vyshata. [Wikipedia]
    Yaroslav married three of his daughters to foreign princes who lived in exile at his court: Elizabeth to Harald III of Norway (who won her hand by his military exploits in the Byzantine Empire); Anastasia to the future Andrew I of Hungary, and Anne of Kiev married Henry I of France and was the regent of France during their son's minority. Another daughter may have been the Agatha who married Edward the Exile, heir to the throne of England and was the mother of Edgar Ætheling and St. Margaret of Scotland. [Wikipedia]

    Armistice signed with the Byzantine Empire in 1046. [Wikipedia]
    Vsevolod I, son of Yaroslav I, married a daughter of Constantine IX Monomachus, Byzantine emperor. [Wikipedia]

    1045 AD Constantine has 3000 Varangians in Abkhasia .[Jelisavcic]

    1047 AD Yaroslav Vladimirovich war against Masovia on side of Kasimir I of Poland. [Jelisavcic]

    1048 AD Varangians serve in Byzantine war against Pechenegs in Bulgaria. [Jelisavcic]

    1048 AD Varangians and Normans sent to fight Seljuk Sultan Toghrul in Asia Minor, defend Manzikert. [Jelisavcic]

    1055 AD Torks appear in Periayaslavl principality for first time. [Jelisavcic]

    1054-5 AD Polovtsi arrive in Ukraine steppe between Volga and Don and western Don basin - first mention in chronicles. [Jelisavcic]

    1055 AD Vsyevolod I Yaroslavich, then still prince of Pereyaslavl, runs into Tork advance detachment of Polovtsi and quickly judging the serious situation with the new powerful nomad group reaches agreement with Khan Bolush on territorial borders. [Jelisavcic]

    1056-57 AD Michael VI, Stratioticus, Byzantine emperor, revolt led by Katakalon Cecaumenos in name of Isaac Comnenus, Varangians on both sides, Isaac's Varangians will battle at Petroe on 20 May 1057 [Jelisavcic]

    1060 AD First campaign of Rus prince's druzhina against Torks, led by Vsyevolod Yaroslavich [Jelisavcic]

    1061-2 AD Khazar territories as far as Dnepr fall to Polovtsi. - First mention of Polovtsi attack on Kyiv, they suddenly disregard the peace treaty and launch deep raids, especially into Vsyevolod I's Pereyaslavl principality in 1062 [Jelisavcic]

    1063-1167 AD Regular, nearly continuous intensive Polovtsi raiding campaigns against Rus, capturing cattle and slaves [Jelisavcic]

    1064 AD Campaign against Rostislav from Tmutorakhan, Svyatoslav goes to Novgorod, war with Vsyeslav, obtains help from Emperor Constantine X Dukas. [Jelisavcic]

    Rostislav Vladimirovich (d. 1066) grandson of Yaroslav I, married a daughter of the King of Hungary. [Wikipedia]

    1065-6AD Varangians defend Otranto and Bari in Byzantine Italy against Normans, capture Taranto and Brindisi. Fight Robert Guiscard in naval battle off Brindisi [Jelisavcic]

    1067 AD Anastasia, wife of Vsevolod I of Kiev and daughter of Emperor Constantine IX of Byzantium died. Vsevolod's second wife was a Kipchak princess. She bore him three children, one of whom, Eupraxia of Kiev, married Emperor Henry IV of Germany, whereupon she took the name Adelaide. [Wikipedia]

    1068 AD Polovtsi attack Kyivan Rus, reaching Chernigiv. Three princes - Izyaslav I, Svyatoslav II and Vsyevolod I - unite against them but are defeated on Al'ta River. Svyatoslav retreats to Chernigiv, Vsyevolod and Izyaslav to Kyiv. Kyivans want Izyaslav to fight but he refuses, uprising then drives him out and frees Vseslav Briacheslavich and makes him prince. Izyaslav flees to Poland. Yaroslav makes agreement with Polovtsi. Svyatoslav defeats Polovtsi and captures khan. Svyatoslav sends his son, Gleb, to rule Novgorod. [Jelisavcic]

    1069 AD Izyaslav returns with Polish army of Boleslav II, his wife, Gertrude's, nephew. Mstislav Izyaslavich kills Vseslav's supporters in Kyiv. Vseslav flees back to Polotsk where he dies in 1101. Gleb Svyatoslavich defends Novgorod from Vseslav. Izyaslav sends his son, Mstislav, to Polotsk but he dies so Svyatopolk Izyaslavich sent to Polotsk. [Jelisavcic]

    1070's AD Communications between Kyiv and Chersonesus improve, local economy improves, but then trade shifting by Polovtsi to Bospor - Tmutorakhan towns [Jelisavcic]

    1071 AD Great Seljuk Turk victory destroys Byzantine Army at Manzikert, Varangian guard die defending emperor Romanos IV. [Jelisavcic]

    1071 AD Byzantine catepan Stephen Pateranos surrenders Brindisi and Bari to Normans, some Varangians depart or settle there. [Jelisavcic]

    According to the Saga of Edward the Confessor, a large group of Anglo-Saxon lords left England after the Norman Conquest. After ingratiating themselves to the Byzantine Emperor he offered them membership in the Varangian Guard, however, they said they preferred to rule their own lands rather than serve as body guards, so they were granted permission to retake lands lost to his predecessor. [Jelisavcic]

    Sviatoslav II - first wife was Kilikia, possibly a princess from the Caucasus. [Wikipedia]
    In 1072, Sviatoslav II married Oda, daughter of a certain "Count Lippold", and the sister of Burkhard, provost of Trier. Oda's grand-uncles were Pope Leo IX and Henry III, Holy Roman Emperor. [Wikipedia]
    The Seljuk Sultan Kilij Arslan II claimed to descend from one of Sviatoslav's daughters. [Wikipedia]

    1075 AD Izyaslav goes to Emperor Henry IV and sends son, Yaropolk, to Pope Gregory VII seeking aid, but they are unsuccessful. Emperor and Pope have more important things on their minds. (Investiture controversy) [Jelisavcic]

    1078-81 AD After Michael deposed, Nicephorus III, Botaniates, Byzantine emperor, by now many Saxons entering Varangian Guard. [Jelisavcic]

    1079 AD Tmutorokan prince Roman Svyatoslavich attacks Periaslavl with Polovtsi troops but Vsyevolod pays to have him murdered. Then his brother, Oleg Svyatoslavich, becomes prisoner of Khazars who sell him to Byzantines thanks to bribe by Vsyevolod. [Jelisavcic]

    1080 - factory of merchants from Gotland established in Novgorod around St. Olaf's church. [Chronicle of Hanse]

    1080 AD Torks, caught between Kyivans and Polovtsi, loose their independence and join one side or the other. Kyivans settle many along frontier. [Jelisavcic]

    1081-1118 AD Alexius I, Komnenus, attacks Constantinople, Nicephorus surrenders, Alexius becomes Byzantine emperor, needs more mercenaries. Leads Varangian guard to Dyrrhachium in August. [Jelisavcic]

    1082 AD Trade monopoly through Byzantine empire held by Venice in exchange for aid against Norman Robert Guiscard, St Mark church receives tribute. Venice allowed into Black Sea. Guiscard defeats Alexis on 18 Oct. and most of Varangian Guard killed in battle. [Jelisavcic]

    1083 AD Oleg Svyatoslavich returns from Rhodes to Tmutorakhan, rules there 10 years and then moves to rule Chernigiv when Polovtsi take Taman region. [Jelisavcic]

    1087 AD Archbishop of Sudak attends council in Constantinople. [Jelisavcic]

    1088 AD Bolgars attack on Murom and capture it. [Jelisavcic]

    1091 AD Vasil'ko Rostoslavich leads campaign against Poles and Hungarians.[Jelisavcic]

    1091 AD Polovtsi (also called Cuman and Kypchak) cross Danube and destroy Pechenegs. Khan Maniak takes detachment clear into Thrace and smashes the last major Pecheneg horde for Byzantines. They control entire steppe from Volga to Danube, they have subdued the Khazars, Pecheneg and Oghuz (Torks). [Jelisavcic]

    1092 AD The Polovtsi built Priluki on the Uda and Perevolochna and Pesochen on the Dnepr below Peshchani at the confluence of the Supi Kovran. They raid Rus river towns. [Jelisavcic]

    1092 AD Vsyevolod I and Svyatopolk II begin to answer Polovtsi attacks with offensive campaign. [Jelisavcic]

    1092 AD Anna Kommina reports, Chersonesus still important slave mart for Polovtsi - slaves sent east to Asia and west throughout Mediterranian - Byzantine Varangian naval campaign to Crete and Cyprus. [Jelisavcic]

    1092 AD Vasilko Rostislavich uses Polovtsi to raid Poland. [Jelisavcic]

    1093 AD Learning of death of Vsyevolod Yaroslavich, Polovtsi send ambassador to Svyatopolk II to conclude a peace treaty. But Svyatopolk calls the ambassador a liar - Polovtsi besiege and sack his capital at Poros'ya on the Torchesk river. Vladimir Monomakh moves to Chernigiv, his brother, Rostislav moves to Periaslavl, Oleg Svyatoslavich in Tmutorakhan, David Sviatoslavich in Novgorod, Svyatopolk Izyaslavich keeps Turov as well as Kyiv. In May Rostislav drowns in Stuga during retreat from Polovtsi, Svyatopolk and Vladimir Monomakh escape. In July Svyatopolk looses another battle to Polovtsi. Oleg Svyatoslavich brings Polovtsi again toward Chernigiv. [Jelisavcic]

    1094 AD Oleg's druzhina attacks Vladimir's on Chernigiv ramparts while his Polovtsi plunder the region. Vladimir retreats back to Periaslavl. Then Polovtsi burn Kyiv. Svyatapolk II enters into peace agreement with Khan Tugor and marries the Khan's daughter in 1095. [Jelisavcic]

    1094 AD After this time no mention of Tmutorakhan as Polovtsi and Venice have trade control, Rus connection with Chernosesus broken, Sudak increasing as major Polovtsi city - also last mention of Khazars in Rus chronicles. [Jelisavcic]

    Sviatopolk II married twice; to a Bohemian princess and then in 1094 to a daughter of Tugor Khan of the Kypchaks. By his first wife he had two daughters, Zbyslava, whom he married to king Boleslaw III of Poland, and Predslava to Prince Álmos of Croatia. His son Yaroslav reigned in Volynia and was married three times - to Hungarian, Polish, and Kievan princesses. His other daughter, Maria, married Piotr Włostowic. [Wikipedia]

    1096 AD Polovtsi forces of Khans Kur and Tugor fall on Pereyaslavl town Ust'ye at the confluence of the Trubesh and Dnepr and on Kyiv. Vladimir Monomakh kills two Polovtsi leaders in battle. Khan Turog raids Periaslavl while Khan Boniak raids Kyiv and burns royal palace at Berestovo and sacks the three monasteries south of town. Oleg Svyatoslavich goes north to war against Vladimir Monomakh's sons, one is killed at Suzdal. Previously the north-eastern towns were remote and marginal, but now they are becoming more important economically and therefore of more political interest. [Jelisavcic]

    1097 AD David Igoryevich Vladimirski sends Kyivan troops and Polovtsi Khan Bonyak's cavalry against Magyars. Polovtsi give Magyars a decisive defeat on the San River near Peremishl , this is precedent for Kyivan use of Polovtsi cavalry in war. [Jelisavcic]

    1099 AD War of Kyivan principality in Volinya against Polish kingdom. [Jelisavcic]

    Vladimir Monomakh, son of Vsevolod I and a Byzantine princess, married Gytha of Wessex, daughter of Harold Godwinson. She died in Palestine around 1098, possibly following Godfrey of Bouillon in the first Crusade. [Wikipedia]
    Vladimir Monomakh's second wife was a Byzantine noblewoman. [Wikipedia]
    Vladimir Monomakh's third wife was a daughter of the Kipchak/Cuman/Polovstian khan. [Wikipedia]
    Eufemia, daughter of Vladimir Monomakh, married King Coloman of Hungary. [Wikipedia]
    Maria, daughter of Vladimir Monomakh, married the Byzantine pretender who called himself Leon Diogenes. [Wikipedia]
    Vladimir's sister, Eupraxia married Henry the Long, Markgraf of Nordmark. [Wikipedia]
    Eupraxia then married the Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV, taking the name Adelheid. [Wikipedia]

12th Century:
    1100 AD Norsemen from Norway on crusade return via Constantinople and Russia [Jelisavcic]

    1101 AD Polovtsi finally send their ambassadors to the Rus princes, offering gold. Then they traveled to the depth of Rus lands to Sakov, northwest of Peryeyaslavl. [Jelisavcic]

    1102 AD Peace treaty between Rus and Polovtsi at Sakov. Novgorod is ruled by Vladimir's son, Mstislav. [Jelisavcic]

    1102-1138 AD Boleslav III, King of Poland defeats Pomeranians, Battle of Naklo in 1109. Svyatopolk's daughter, Sbislava, marries Boleslav. [Jelisavcic]

    1102-3 AD King Eric I of Denmark visits Constantinople on Crusade, dies in Cyprus. [Jelisavcic]

    1103 AD Svyatopolk II and Vladimir Monomakh decide on new offensive, but Oleg Svyatoslavich pleads illness to avoid going against his allies. David Svyatoslavich does participate. Others are David Vsyeslavich, Vyacheslav Yaropolchich, and Yaropolk II Vladimirovich. In April the Rus launch offensive against Polovtsi at the Samar River. They campaign clear to Don and Donets rivers, wining big victories, freeing prisoners and taking their own. They rebuild Yur'yev and strengthen the southern border. [Jelisavcic]

    1104 AD Svyatopolk's daughter, Predslava, marries Prince Ladislav of Hungary [Jelisavcic]

    1105 Polovtsi Khan Boinak raids Rus lands. [Jelisavcic]

    1106 AD Another Rus offensive campaign against the Polovtsi near the Khorol river. [Jelisavcic]

    1107 AD Volga Bolgars besiege Suzdal. [Jelisavcic]

    1107 AD Battle on Sula river Russians defeat Polovtsi led by Khan Sharokan, grandfather of Konchak. [Jelisavcic]

    1108 AD Sigordr, King of Norway, on crusade around Spain and Med returns via Cyprus and Constantinople and overland through Russia, leaves ships and Varangians with Alexis in Byzantium. [Jelisavcic]

    1109-10 AD Svyatopolk II, Vladimir Monomakh and David Svyatoslavich again campaign deep into steppe. [Jelisavcic]

    1110 AD The Polovtsi conduct counter attack against the Pereyaslavl principality. [Jelisavcic]

    1111 AD United Rus forces under command of Svyatopolk II Izyaslavich attack Polovtsi. - Battle on River Sol'nitsa between Rus and Polovtsi . [Jelisavcic]

    1116 AD Part of Torks enter Kyivan service under pressure on steppe from Polovtsi. Vladimir Monomakh sends 2 sons and son of Oleg Svyatoslavich to marry Polovtsi princesses. [Jelisavcic]

    Mstislav I was the eldest son of Vladimir II Monomakh by Gytha of Wessex. He figures prominently in the Norse Sagas under the name Harald, taken to allude to his grandfather, Harold II of England. [Wikipedia]

    Mstislav's life was spent in constant warfare with Cumans (1093, 1107, 1111, 1129), Estonians (1111, 1113, 1116, 1130), and Lithuanians (1131). [Wikipedia]
    In 1095, Mstislav wed Princess Christine of Sweden, daughter of King Inge I of Sweden. Among their children: Ingebora of Kiev, married Canute Lavard of Jutland, and was mother to Valdemar I of Denmark; Malmfrid, married (1) Sigurd I of Norway; (2) Eric II of Denmark; and Eupraxia, married Alexius Comnenus, son of John II Comnenus
    Christine died in 1122; later that year Mstislav married again. Their children included Euphrosyne of Kiev, who married King Geza II of Hungary. [Wikipedia]

    Iziaslav II Mstislavich's first wife was a German princess, daughter of Conrad III of Germany and his first wife Gertrud von Komburg. Their children included Eudoxia, who married Senior Prince Mieszko III of Poland. Iziaslav's second wife was a daughter of King Demetre I of Georgia. [Wikipedia]

    Yaropolk II Vladimirovich married an Ossetian princess, Helena, in 1116. [Wikipedia]

    1120 AD Yurii Dolgoruki campaign against Volga Bolgar [Jelisavcic]

    1121 AD Torks disappear from Rus lands. [Jelisavcic]

    1122 AD Byzantine emperor John II uses Varangian guard to crush Pecheneg in Battle of Beroe. [Jelisavcic]

    1126 -67 AD Almost yearly Polovtsi attacks on Rus lands. They interveen in support of Oleg Svyatoslavich's heirs at Chernigiv 15 times. [Jelisavcic]

    1126 AD Polovtsi attack against Baruch. [Jelisavcic]

    1142 - Foreign traders noticed in Novgorod. [Michell]

    Zvenislava of Chernigov, daughter of Vsevolod II, married Boleslaus IV of Poland. [Wikipedia]

    1149 AD Kyivan-Smolensk forces campaign against Suzdal, they succeed to taking towns along Volga including Dubna, Shosha, Tver and Yaroslavl. Rostov-Suzdal princes have to defend against both Novgorod and Bulgars. They build more frontier fortresses. [Jelisavcic]

    1149 AD Byzantine Varangians attack Roger of Sicily at Thebes in Greece, where Roger has been campaigning since 1147. [Jelisavcic]

    Mstislav II Izyaslavich defeated the Cumans in 1153, but was defeated by the Cumans at the Psyol river. Yury Dolgoruky forced him to flee to Poland in 1155, but the next year Mstislav returned with a new army. In 1151 Mstislav married Agnieszka, the daughter of King Boleslaus III of Poland. [Wikipedia]

    1157 - Bremen merchants in Livonia. [Michell]

    1158 AD First German merchants- missionaries arrive at mouth of West Dvina in Livonia. [Jelisavcic]

    1160-64 AD Andrei I Yur'yevich Bogolyubski campaigns against Volga Bolgar, captures capital on Kama River. [Jelisavcic]

    Andrei Bogolyubsky was the son of Yuri Dolgoruki, and his mother was a Kipchak princess, khan Aepa's daughter. His son, Yuri Bogolyubsky, was the first husband of Queen Tamar of Georgia. [Wikipedia]

    1164 AD Andrei I Yur'yevich founds Gorokhovets on Klyazma as outpost against Bolgars. [Jelisavcic]

    1165 AD Genoese begin effort to push Venice out of Black Sea, buy Russian swords and Polovtsi slaves at Sudak [Jelisavcic]

    1165 - Record of direct commerce between Cologne and Russia. [Michell]

    1167 AD Polovtsi attack against Peryeyaslavl. [Jelisavcic]

    1167 AD Oleg Svyatoslavich, prince of Novgorod-Severski and then of Chernigiv, wins victory over Khan Bonyak. [Jelisavcic]

    1168 AD Chernigiv prince helps Kyivans - Rus troops led by Ol'govichi defeat troops of Khan Kozi and Khan Begluk. [Jelisavcic]

    1169 AD First Byzantine treaty with Genoa - Genoese free trade in Black Sea except Rus and Matrakha (Azov region). [Jelisavcic]

    1169 AD Last mention of Pecheneg in Russian chronicles. Kyivans have nomad horsemen settled along frontier as guards, some are Chernye Klobuki, "Black caps" from 12th century Karakalpak. [Jelisavcic]

    1170 AD Russians led by Mstislav II, Izyaslavich, campaign against Polovtsi, at Snoporog and Orel. [Jelisavcic]

    1172 AD Polovtsi attack Korsun and Pesochen simultaneously and then Kyiv. [Jelisavcic]

    1172 AD Russian campaign of princes of Rostov and Murom against Volga Bolgar and Mordvi. [Jelisavcic]

    1173 AD Ol'ga, daughter of Yuri Dolgoruki, departs Galich with her son to Poland. She was incensed that her husband, Yaroslav Vladimirovich Osmomysl had engaged a mistress, Nataslya. This had serious effects in both Galicia and Hungary. [Jelisavcic]

    Vsevolod III Yuryevich "the Big Nest." Vsevolod's Christian name was Dmitry. Vsevolod was the tenth or eleventh son of Yury Dolgoruky and Helene, possibly a Greek princess, since, after her husband's death she took Vsevolod with her to Constantinople to spend his youth at the court of the Komnenoi. On his return from Byzantium to Rus in 1170, Vsevolod supposedly visited Tbilisi, as a local chronicle records that that year the Georgian king entertained his nephew from Constantinople and married him to an Ossetian princess, Maria Shvarnovna. [Wikipedia]

    1174 AD Polovtsi attack Baruch - Rus offensive campaign goes to Orel and Samara - Novgorod merchant traders on Volga to Kama River meet Bolgars [Jelisavcic]

    Vsevolod Svyatoslavich the Red-haired married Maria, daughter of Casimir II of Poland in 1178. [Wikipedia]

    1180 AD Igor Svyatoslavich of Novgorod-Seversk and Konchak, ruler of Polovtsi, defeated at battle of Dolobsk by sons of Rostislav I, Rurik of Belgorod (Kyiv) and David of Smolensk. [Jelisavcic]

    1180 - first Hanseatic Kontor founded in Novgorod, and St. Paul's church constructed as archives and storehouse, in addition to place of worship. [Hanse Chronicle]

    1183 AD Vsyevolod III Yur'yevich campaign against Volga Bolgar, sinks their ships. [Jelisavcic]

    1183 AD Polovtsi attack Dmitrov Kyivski - Svyatoslav III, prince of Kyiv, and Rurik Rostislavich, rout Polovtsi at battle of Orel river. Khan Konchak defeated during Rus offensive at Khorol. [Jelisavcic]

    1184 AD Polovtsi Khan Konchak attacks Pereyaslavl - Khan Gzi attacks Posyemi. [Jelisavcic]

    1184 AD Grand Prince of Vladimir-Suzdal, Vsyevolod III Yur'yevich and allies campaign against Bolgars who attack Gorodetz-na-Oka , Murom, Ryazan. [Jelisavcic]

    1185 AD Prince Bogislav counterattacks Danes and looses, surrenders all the Pomeranian coast to Canute VI. [Jelisavcic]

    1185 AD Polovtsi attack Peryeyaslavl and Rimov. Svyatoslav III Vsyevolodovich defeats Polovtsi on 21 April. [Jelisavcic]

    1185 AD Prince Igor Svyatoslavich of Novgorod-Seversk in campaign against Polovtsi, led by Khan Konchak, during which there was a solar eclipse (May 1) celebrated in the famous "Song of Igor's Campaign." Igor is captured. His son, Vladimir, marries Konchak's daughter. After defeating Igor, Konchak failed in attack on Pereyaslavl. [Jelisavcic]

    1186 AD Second campaign of Vsyevolod III against Volga Bolgar. [Jelisavcic]

    1187 AD First accounts of conflict between Novgorod the Great and Swedes along coast and in Finland. Novgorod troops use Est and Karelian allies to raid Gothland. [Jelisavcic]

    1187 AD Khan Konchak attacks Porosi' and Chernigiv lands simultaneously - Svyatoslav III Vsyevolodovich defeats Polovtsi on Samara river. [Jelisavcic]

    1187 AD Death of Yaroslav Osmomysl. Oleg Yaroslavich is removed from his inheritance in Galich by his brother, Vladimir Yaroslavich. Vladimir is unpopular with the local boyars due to his immorality. He is removed and expelled by Roman Mstislavich. Hungarian King Bela III supports Vladimir and drives Roman out of Galich and brings Vladimir back. [Jelisavcic]

    1190 AD Peace treaty between Grand Prince Svyatoslav III Vsyevolodovich and Rurik II Rostislavich on one side versus Polovtsi Khans on the other at the Tyasmin River. [Jelisavcic]

    1190 AD Battle of Galich. Vladimir, son of Yaroslav Osmomysl the Wise of Galich, escapes from Hungarian King Bela, whose son, Andrei had usurped the Galician throne. With the help of Polish troops he regains his seat. [Jelisavcic]

    1190? or 1192? AD Battle of Mozgav' River in the struggle in Poland between the children of Casimir the Just and their uncle, Meshka the Elder. Roman Mstislavich fights on the losing side and is wounded, then taken to Vladimir Volynskii. [Jelisavcic]

    1191 AD Trade treaty between Novgorod the Great and Hanse towns, Yaroslav Vladimirovich is the appointed prince of Novgorod. [Jelisavcic]

    1192 AD Renewed peace treaty between Rurik Rostislavich and Khan Kuntuvdi [Jelisavcic]

    1196 AD Yaroslav Vsyevolodovich of Chernigiv invades Smolensk lands, battles occur in Smolensk, Polotsk, Kyiv, Chernigiv, Volynia and Galicia. Rostoslavichi ally, Vsyevolod III and Gleb Ingvaryevich of Ryazan are against Ol'govichi of Chernigiv, princes of Polotsk and Roman of Volynia. Polovtsi hired to fight by both sides. After peace there has been no change in positions. [Jelisavcic]

    1197 - 1199 AD Ryazan princes forced to support Suzdal princes in campaigns first against Chernigiv and then against Polovtsi. [Jelisavcic]

    1199 - oldest known charter granted to German merchants in Novgorod. [Chronicle of the Hanse]

    1199 AD Roman Mstislavich, Prince of Vladimir in Volynia takes Galich also. He divorces daughter of Rurik to marry Byzantine princess. [Jelisavcic]

    1199 AD Vladimir Igoryevich is the appanage prince of Putivl and son of Igor Svyatoslavich, the appanage prince of Novgorod-Seversk. His mother is a daughter of Yaroslav Vladimirovich Osmomisl. Vladimir marries the daughter (whose name is not known) of the Polovtsi Khan, Konchak. Mstislav Mstislavich Udaloi is married (exact year unknown) to Maria, daughter of Polovtsi Khan Kotyan. Their daughter is Rostislava-Fedosia, future wife of Yaroslav II Vsyevolodovich, grand prince of Vladimir, and mother of Alexander Nevski. [Jelisavcic]

    1199 AD Second campaign by Rus princes deep into Polovtsi territory led by Vsyevolod Yur'yevich. [Jelisavcic]

13th Century:

    Mstislav Mstislavich the Bold earned fame in 1193 and 1203 by his bravery in the Kypchak wars. At that time, he married a daughter of Kypchak Khan Kotian. In 1223, seeking to secure his authority among other princes, he gathered another coalition which attacked an advance-guard of Genghis Khan at the Kalka River. He was one of the few to survive the ill-fated battle. Mstislav reigned in Halych until 1227, when boyar intrigues constrained him to leave the city to his son-in-law, Andrew of Hungary. [Wikipedia]

    1200-03 AD Roman Mstislavich, prince of Galich and Volynia, holds Kyiv also. He conducts successful raid on Polovtsi. [Jelisavcic]

    1200 AD Lithuanians invade Novgorod lands. [Jelisavcic]

    1201 AD Swedes invade Novgorod lands. [Jelisavcic]

    1201 AD Volga Bolgar campaign against Rus - Vladimir Suzdal. [Jelisavcic]

    1202 AD Some references date these first events a few years earlier. Important changes take place in South-western Rus'. Vladimir Yaroslavich of Galich dies. Roman Mstislavich renews his pretentions and with the aid of the Poles is able to take over Galich. This has immediate repercussions on the political system of Southern Rus'. The Ol'govichi seek a reprochment with Roman's enemy, Rurik Rostislavich. They plan a campaign, however Roman attacks Kyiv first, whereupon the Kyivan population sides with Roman. They open the lower city (Podol) gates and admit Roman. Rurik and the Ol'govichi are confined to the upper city fortress. Roman is joined by Chernye Klobuki. Rurik and the Ol'govichi surrender and are sent off. Roman puts his cousin, Ingvar Yaroslavich, of Lutsk in Volynia on Kyiv throne. Rurik is unpopular because he invited Polovtsi into Russia several times, whereas Roman is the son of the popular Mstislav II Izyaslavich (who had ruled as grand prince there 1167-1169. While Roman never ruled Kyiv as grand prince, he had ruled Novgorod for his father and then became the most powerful prince in Galich until his death. ) Vsyevolod III Yur'yevich, ruler of Vladimir, sends his 12 year old son, Yaroslav, to Periaslavl. He persuades Ol'govichi to break with Roman. Igor Svyatoslavich is to rule Chernigiv. [Jelisavcic]

    1203 AD The end result in Kyiv is that in January the Polovtsi counterattack sack Kyiv as allies of Rurik Rostislavich of Smolensk to oust Roman Mstislavich of Galich. A large part of the population is herded away to slave market. This is the second sack of the city, following Andrei's assault in 1169. In Feb. Roman goes to Rurik at Ovruchi to break alliance. Roman gets Vsyevolod III to give Rurik Kyiv separately from Chernigiv. Roman keps Volynia and Galicia. [Jelisavcic]

    1203 AD The rulers of Polotsk are concerned about the German actions against the Livs, who were tribute payers of Polotsk. Polotsk troops campaign for the first time against Riga. At the same time the Lithuanian prince Vissival'd calls for assistance against the approaching Teutonic knights. [Jelisavcic]

    1204 AD All the Rus princes except the Ol'govichi ally for campaign against the Polovtsi. On the way back Roman captures Rurik and has him and his family made monk and nuns. Roman takes Rurik's sons, Rostislav and Vladimir, as prisoner to Galicia. Vsyevolod III is furious and sends agents to free Rostislav and Vladimir. After all, Rostislav is Vsyevolod's son-in-law. He puts Rostislav on Kyivan throne. [Jelisavcic]

    1204 AD Fourth Crusade takes Constantinople - establish Frankish empire - Venice by alliance receives major share of spoils, merchants favored in Black Sea trade, Venice controls Dardanelles and Adriatic and Crete. [Jelisavcic]

    1204-61 AD Italian colonies increase role in Black Sea trade - Roman Catholic church missionaries and bishops accompany merchants. [Jelisavcic]

    1205 AD Ryazan princes defeat Polovtsi - Third campaign of Vsyevolod III against Bolgars, Mordvi and Cheremish. [Jelisavcic]

    1205 AD Battle of Zavikhost on the banks of the Vistula River. Prince Roman Mstislavich of Volynia is killed while campaigning against the king of Lesser Poland, Leshka the White of Krakow, (1202-1227) and his brother, Conrad of Mazovia. Daniil Romanovich, then 4 years old pushed out with his mother from Galich. This opens Galicia to Poles and Hungarians and others and renews the struggle between Rostislavichi and Ol'govichi. [Jelisavcic]

    1206 AD Rurik II Rostislavich leads Polovtsi and Torki against Hungarians in Galicia and defeats them on River Seret. Hungarians and Poles in major war and Poles and Rostislavichi have the worst of it. The Ol'govichi clan (Igoryevichi) gain in Galician war capturing Vladimir and Galich, Roman takes Zvenigorod and Svyatoslav takes Vladimir in Volynia. They manage to hold the region for 5 years but are hanged in 1211. Meanwhile Vsyevolod Svyatoslavich Chermnyy returns and takes Kyiv and demands that Yaroslav Vsyevolodovich leave Periaslavl. Yaroslav complies and Vsyevolod Svyatoslavich puts his son, Mikhail, on throne at Periaslavl. But in this Vsyevolod has over-reached. Rurik quickly takes Uruchi fortress and sends son, Rostislav, to Vysegorod, and his nephew, Mstislav-Boris Romanovich Starii, to Belgorod fortress with another nephew, Mstislav Mstislavich Udaloy to Torchesk fortress. These fortresses control access to Kyiv. They then push Vsyevolod out of Kyiv and his son out of Periaslavl. During winter 1206-7 Vsyevolod tries to retake Kyiv but fails after 3-week siege. [Jelisavcic]

    1206-10 AD The Polotsk druzhina campaigns a second time coming to the aid of the Livs. But they are late, meanwhile the Bishop of Riga's knights and landsknetcht defeat the Polotsk troops laying siege to their outposts in Livonia at Koknes and Yersika, which they capture in 1207. [Jelisavcic]

    1207 AD Vsyevolod Chermnyy retakes Kyiv by bringing all troops from Galicia, Turov and the Polovtsi. This time he first takes each fortress one by one and has the city by August.. But he is ousted again at end of year. Rurik flees again to Uruchi. But in August Vsyevolod III at Suzdal plans counterattack on Chernigiv to help Rurik. He starts but is diverted to Ryazan by threat of pro-Ol'govichi princes there. From assembly point at Moscow, his army goes south-east to Ryazan where they arrest all the Ryazan princes and bishop. At this Rurik is able to react again and push Vsyevolod Chermnyy out of Kyiv. So Rurik regains the throne for the seventh time and holds it for 3 years. Meanwhile, Konstantin Vsyevolodovich is ordered to bring Novgorod - Pskov - Ladoga - Torzhok troops on same campaign. He marches as far as Pronsk where he is wounded and then he goes to Vladimir to recover. Svyatoslav is sent back to Novgorod in early 1208. [Jelisavcic]

    1210 AD Last attack of Polovtsi against Peryeyaslavl. [Jelisavcic]

    1211 AD The Poles and Hungarians support the Guelfs against Pope Innocent III. The Galich Rus pay dearly at Hungarian hands. They invite the Chernigovtsi (Ol'govichi) to rule. The boyars fight the Ol'govichi who seek aid from Hungarians. The boyars win and execute the Ol'govichi, but Galich is divided between Hungarians and Poles in 1214. [Jelisavcic]

    1212 AD Daniil Romanovich regains throne as appanage prince of Galich. [Jelisavcic]

    1212 AD Early in the year Mstislav Mstislavich Udaloi at the head of a combined Novgorod-Pskov-Polotsk-Toropets army of 15,000 campaigns successfully against the Chud and Livonian knights as far as Baltic at Tallinin. (First of at least 5 campaigns against Chud). He raids the support bases of the Knights of the Cross in Livonia. He levies tribute. But the Germans manage to break up the alliance, first forcing Polotsk to come to terms and then by a second treaty compel Novgorod to come to terms with Treiden. Mstislav prepares for southern campaign. [Jelisavcic]

    1213-17-19 AD Mstislav III Romanovich three times sends Polovtsi against Hungarians who were disturbing Russians on the Dniester. [Jelisavcic]

    1214 AD By Treaty of Spisz the Hungarians and Poles attempt to divide Galicia and Volynia and put Hungarian king's son, Karloman, on Galich throne. [Jelisavcic]

    1214 AD Yaroslav II Vsyevolodovich marries as his second wife, Mstislav Mstislavich's daughter, Rostislava-Feodosia. Her mother, Mstislav's wife, is Maria, daughter of Polovtsi Khan Kotyan. She is future mother of Alexander Nevski and his brothers. [Jelisavcic]

    1215 AD Rurik dies as a prisoner in Chernigiv. But Mstislav Mstislavich (Rostoslavichi) holds on to Novgorod. But over winter 1214-1215 he makes recon trip to Galicia via Kyiv where he visits Mstislav Romanovich.While Mstislav is in Galicia, Yaroslav goes to take Novgorod from his father-in-law, but when Mstislav returns in Feb 1215, Yaroslav retreats to Torzhok and starts blockade of Novgorod grain supply. Conflict between Yurii and Yaroslav Vsyevolodovichi intensifies. Polovtsi raid Periaslavl and capture Vladimir Vsyevolodovich. He is released in 1217 and given Starodub to rule. [Jelisavcic]

    1215 AD Hungarians capture western Galicia area given to Leszek at Spisz. [Jelisavcic]

    1216 AD Yaroslav II Vsyevolodovich captures Novii Torg and organizes a blocade of grain delivery to Novgorod. In answer the Novgorodians call in prince Mstislav Mstislavich Udaloi, who currently is based at Toropetsk. In this campaign is first mention of Rzhev under Mstislav's control and of Zubtsov taken by the Periaslavl -Zaleski troops. Mstislav gains victory over the Vladimirian troops but only briefly, it does not change overall situation. In face of German threat Novgorod has to return the throne to prince of Vladimir. [Jelisavcic]

    1216 AD The same year Mstislav Mstislavich leads Novgorod troops into Livonia as far as Riga. [Jelisavcic]

    1217 AD The Knights of the Cross build a fortress at Odenpa in eastern Estonia. They attack Russian villages on the Feast of Epiphany, 16 January. [Jelisavcic]

    1217 AD The combined armies of Novgorod (led by Mstislav Mstislavich) and Estonia campaign successfully in southern Estonia. Heinrick the Lithuanian in the "Chronicle of Livonia" writes "In 1217 the Novgorodians gathered a force headed by the Pskov king Vladimir and his subjects. They gathered strength throughout Estonia, leading the Est in siege against the Knights of the Cross." [Jelisavcic]

    1218 or 19? AD Volga Bolgars raid Sukhoma River, capture Ustyug fortress and are defeated at the Unzha river.. [Jelisavcic]

    1218 AD Mstislav Mstislavich campaigns into Galicia. He has his cousin, Vladimir Rurikovich, and the Polotsk army. Kaloman is arrested. [Jelisavcic]

    1218 AD The Novgorodian-Pskov army reaches and besieges Venden, the citadel of the Livonian Order. [Jelisavcic]

    1218-19 AD Another daughter of Mstislav Mstislavich Udaloi, Anna, weds Daniil Romanovich, prince (later king) of Galicia. She is the mother of Roman, Lev, Msitslav and Shvarin (kings of Galicia). This makes Mstislav and Maria the ancestors of the two main houses in Russia. Bishop Albert makes his brother, Engelbert, prior of Saint Mary's and marries his brother, Theodoric, to a daughter of the Prince of Pskov, Vladimir Mstislavich. This last does not meet the approval of the Pskov veche, so they chase Vladimir out of town.[Jelisavcic]

    1219 AD Volga Bolgar campaign against Vladimir- Suzdal. [Jelisavcic]

    1219 AD Mstislav Mstislavich Udaloi, the politically adept one, attempts to expel the Hungarian heir, Koloman, from Galich with Polovtsi aid. Mstislav's father-in-law is Khan Kotyan, but even the Polovtsi with other princes can not dislodge the Hungarians. Mstislav is driven out by Poles and Hungarians and Kaloman is back. [Jelisavcic]

    1219 AD Sudak campaign [Jelisavcic]

    1220 AD Eastern campaign of Prince Yurii II Vsyevolodovich. He sends druzhina of four princes (Svyatoslav Vsyevolodovich of Suzdal, Vasil'ko Konstantinovich of Rostov, and two Murom princes, Svyatoslav Davidovich and Oleg Yur'yevich (son if Yurii Igoryevich, prince of Ryazan) against Volga Bolgar. They sail down the Volga to Oshel (Ashla) and capture it after siege. Three Bolgar embassies sue for peace. [Jelisavcic]

    1220 AD The Teutonic Knights capture much of the western Polotsk lands. [Jelisavcic]

    1220-1460 - The growth of the Hanse trade was aided by the business acument of the German merchants, but also the troubles with the Lithuanians, Tartars, and Teutonic knights. Merchants from Brunswick, Dortmund, Duisburg, Magdeburg, Munster, etc. were represented in the Novgorod Hanse. And even medieval Russians sometimes venture far overland to reach customers. [Michell]

    1221-22 AD Mstislav Mstislavich Udaloi decides to go make a career in Galicia and so informs the people of Novgorod. (was this in 1218?) He takes large army to Galicia including units of Mstislav-Boris Romanovich of Kyiv and other Rostislavichi and Ol'govichi from Turov, Lutsk and Yaroslav Vsyevolodovich of Suzdal and Peryeyaslavl Zaleski. Polovtsi troops also included. They fight two battles, one on Seret river east of Galich and the other nearer to the city. The Hungarians and Poles are defeated. Galich is taken after 17-day siege. Kaloman again a prisoner. In 1218 Mstislav Mstislavich is replaced at Novgorod by Mstislav-Boris Romanovich's second son, Vsyevolod, but Novgorodians tell Vsyevolod to leave in 1221. One result is that Daniil Romanovich now gains throne of Volynia. [Jelisavcic]

    1221-22 AD Troops from Smolensk capture Polotsk. [Jelisavcic]

    1221 AD Rus-Bulgar 6 year truce sign at Gorodetz-na-Oka near Kasimov by Grand Prince of Vladimir-Suzdal, Yurii II Vsyevolodovich, and a Bulgar ambassador- this is the border of two principalities - they agree to exchange prisoners. Yurii establishes frontier fortress town at Nizhni-Novgorod at confluence of Oka and Volga. [Jelisavcic]

    1221 AD The Seljuk sultan, ala ad-Din Keikebad, acting in response to a complaint from a merchant who had been ambushed in the "Khazar Pass", sends an army (and navy?) to Crimea where it defeats a Rus-Polovtsi force. The Seljuks want to divert Crimean trade from Trebizond to their port at Sinope. When Mstislav Mstislavich brings reenforcements, he is prevented from attacking because the Seljuks hold hostages. [Jelisavcic]

    1222 AD The Ests aid the Novgorodian-Pskovite army to wipe out Livonian knight garrisons at Ezel, Fellin and Odenp. The Novgorodian prince, Yaroslav II Vsyevolodovich brings 20,000 troops to grab all Livonia up to Revel. Yaroslav sends Prince Vyachko with a Rus druzhina to Yur'yev. [Jelisavcic]

    1222 AD In support of Mstislav Mstislavich Udaloi, the combined forces of Kyivan Prince Mstislav III Romanovich the Old (who died in 1223), Vladimir Rurikovich ( of Smolensk, who succeeded to Kyiv in 1223), Rostislav Davydovich ??, Rostislav Mstislavich (the son of Mstislav the Old), and the Polovtsi of Khan Khotyan succeed in defeating the Hungarians and Poles at Galich. [Jelisavcic]

    1222 AD First Mongol attack, they attack Georgia, cross Caucasus, attack Alans and Kypchak( Polovtsi). [Jelisavcic]

    1223 AD Vladimir III Rurikovich Grand Prince of Kyiv: Yaroslav Vsyevolodovich elected prince of Novgorod. Yaroslav unsuccessfully besieges Revel fortress. [Jelisavcic]

    1223 or 4? AD Mongols continue and destroy Russian-Kypchak army on Kalka River. The Rus army is commanded by the three Mstislavs: Mstislav Mstislavich (The Galician) Udaloi, who is son-in-law of Polovtsi Khan Khotyan, Mstislav Svyatoslavich Chormnyi of Chernigiv and Mstislav-Boris Romanovich the Old of Kyiv. But no Ryazantsi princes participate. They decide to move east into steppe to confront the unknown Tatar menace. They move down the Dniper and meet two Mongol delegations along the way but dismiss them. At Periaslavl they are reenforced from Smolensk, Chernigiv and Galicia and continue to Protolochi. Mstislav's lack of forsight in assessing the Mongols and his tenuous ties with the leader of the "Brodniki" who populated the Don region and replenished the Mongols, results in Mstislav surrendering to the Mongols. About half the Rus princes including Mstislav Romanovich of Kyiv, Svyatoslav of Konev, Mstislav Svyatoslavich of Chernigiv, Dmitri Mstislavich of Chernigiv (Kozel) , Izyaslav Ingvar'yevich (of Lutsk) , Syyatoslav of Shumsk, Alexandr Dubrovtsa, Yuri Nesvezh and Andrei, son in law of Mstislavich are killed. Mstislav Mstislavich Udaloi escapes. The sack of Sudak, is described by Ibn- al-Athir. [Jelisavcic]

    1224 AD The Battle on the river Imer. The year following Yaroslav's siege of Revel, after the Tatar victory over the Russians, the Teutonic knights defeated the army of Est on the river Imer. The Est had rebelled, and Yaroslav sent to Yur'yev, prince Vyachko with a Russian druzhina. The capture by the Danes of Yur'yev in 1224 led to a peace with boundaries of the Lake Chud' and along the river Narov. Northern Estonia in German hands. The Livonian knights capture Yur'yev. The Talavy area, south east Lithuania around Yur'yev, is divided between the Bishop of Riga and the Teutonic Order. An independent bishopric is founded at Derpt- Yur'yev. The Est are nearly wiped out and the Russians chased out of Estonia. [Jelisavcic]

    1225 AD Possible naval landing or land campaign via Caucasus by Seljuk Turks from Sinope commanded by Husam-al-Din Chupan to capture Sudak and divert trade from Trebizond. They establish a protectorate. [Jelisavcic]

    1225 AD Khan Khotyan, who also escaped death at Kalka river, helps his son-in-law, Mstislav Mstislavich, campaign in Galicia. [Jelisavcic]

    1225 - Date of the Skra or code of the Nemetski (Germanic) factory in Novgorod. [Michell]

    Yaroslav II was the fourth son of Vsevolod the Big Nest. In 1200, he was sent by his father to rule the town of Pereyaslav near the Kypchak steppes. In 1222, Yaroslav overran all of Estonia. Four years later, he devastated Finland and baptised Karelia. [Wikipedia]

    1226 AD Yelena Mstislavna, daughter of Novgorod (then Galicia) Prince Mstislav Udaloi, marries the Hungarian heir and future king Andrew III. This is the third house into which Mstislav's daughters have married. [Jelisavcic]

    1226 AD The campaign against the neighbors of the Korelians, the "En or Yen" leads to a revanche in 1228 in which the inhabitants around Lake Ladoga led by their posadnik defeat the attackers. [Jelisavcic]

    1226 AD Battle of Toropets. The Lithuanians are defeated by the Novgorodian druzhina of Prince Yaroslav Vsyevolodovich and the city's prince, David Mstislavich, brother of Mstislav Udaloi. [Jelisavcic]

    1228 AD Conflict begins between Vladimir Ryurikovich, grand prince of Kyiv, and Daniil Romanovich, now prince of Galich and Volinya, because Vladimir's brother, Rostislav was upset that Daniil had taken the appanage of Chertoryisk and that Vladimir's father, Ryurik, had been forced to become a monk by Daniil's father, Roman. The opponents are the grandsons of the brothers, Izyaslav and Rostislav. Vladimir joins into the fight against Daniil. The new prince of Chernigiv, Mikhail Vsyevolodovich, and Khotyan with all the Polovtsi warriors and those of the Turov and Pinsk princes campaign against Daniil's appanages. This coalition poses a real threat to the Hungarian heir and the Hungarian presence in Galich and thus is a real political threat to Daniil. He turns for help to the Poles and simultaneously enters into talks with Khotyan to sway him over to his side. Instead of joining Vladimir, Khotyan's Polovtsi troops raid the countryside. The military actions of the allies begin with an assault on Kamenets on the Sluch River, which are beaten off, so they return home. Meanwhile the Polish forces reach Daniil and he advances against Kyiv. Vladimir and Mikhail do not expect this turn of affairs. They conclude a peace with Daniil. [Jelisavcic]

    1229 - Priviledges granted to German merchants at Novgorod discusses weights, measures, portage fees, legal jurisdictions, etc. and specifies that "Guests may send their children freely and without hindrance in the land to learn the language wherever they wish." [1229 Privileges]

    1229 AD Daniil Romanovich of Galich uses his Polovtsi allies against Hungary that was threatening his new kingdom of Galicia. [Jelisavcic]

    1229 AD Peace treaty of 6 years between Vladimir-Suzdal and Bolgars at border - Karenev on Volga - Grand prince of Vladimir-Suzdal, Yurii II Vsyevolodovich and Bulgar ambassadors - agree to free prisoners and open free trade and fishing rights [Jelisavcic]

    1230 AD King Henry III of England grants special privileges to Gotland merchants and pension to the Teutonic knights to encourage trade between Baltic and England. [Jelisavcic]

    1234 AD Last battle between Rus princes and Polovtsi, Polovtsi capture Grand Prince Vladimir III Rurikovich who is then ransomed. [Jelisavcic]

    1234 AD Battle of Yemaiyigi (Embakh) River. Prince Yaroslav II Vsyevolodovich and his fourteen year old son, Aleksandr (later Nevski), force the Order knights onto the ice of the Omovzha River where many are drowned and others manage to reach Yur'yev. The Grossmeister of the Teutonic knights, Volquin von Vingershtein, concluds a peace with Yaroslav II Vsyevolodovich which is observed for four years. [Jelisavcic]

    1234 AD Battle of Derpt, Yur'yev. Yaroslav II Vsyevolodovich receives the appanage of the cities of Pereyaslavl Zaleski, Dmitrov, and Tver. The Novgorodians invited prince Yaroslav to rule in 1215 and in 1226 and 1230. In this battle he mets the knights outside Yur'yev. Many knights of the Sword are drowned. The same year the Lithuanians attacked the knights of the Sword and drove east to Torshok, near Tver, where they are repulsed by Yaroslav Vsyevolodovich's druzhina and chased clear to Toropets. [Jelisavcic]

    1235 AD Oblivious to the coming storm from the East, Prince Michael Chernigovskii, (that is Mikhail Vsyevolodovich) under the banner of Izyaslav Vladimirovich, prince of Putlivl, the grandson of the famous Prince Igor, captures and sacks Kyiv. Both he and his opponent, Daniil Romanovich Volynskii rely on Polovtsi weapons and troops. Their loyalties are swayed by intermarriages of Russian princes and Polovetsian beauties. Izyaslav sits on the throne in Kyiv. Michael chases Daniil out of Galich into Hungary. Izyaslav is grand prince at Kyiv (1234- 1236) [Jelisavcic]

    1235 AD The battle at Mogil'no. The western princes unite against the main Lithuanian force led by Prince Ringol'd. The battle taks place where the Ditva river falls into the Neiman in modern Belarus. The Rus are led by the prince of Drutsk, Dmitrii, the druzhina of the prince of Volynsk, Prince Lev Daniilovich (10 yrs old?) and the brother of the great prince, Yuri II Vsyevolodovich, Svyatoslav of Starodub (or Yur'yev). The Rus suffer a humiliating defeat at the hands of the Lithuanians [Jelisavcic]

    1236 AD Battle of the Shaulya (Saule) River on 21 September. Also known as the battle of Kamenka, a small village on the boundary between Latvia and Lithuania. The site is disputed. Under the leadership of Mindovg the Lithuanians unite their lands. At the Shaulya Prince Ringol'd defeats the Teutonic knights led by the Grossmeister, with Count Dannenberg and Count Hazel'dorf of the German knights of the Cross. Also participating are princes of Volynia; with their companies of Galicians. The heavily armed knights are annihilatred. The Grossmeister of the Teutonic knights, Volquin von Vingerstein, Dannenberg and Hazel'dorf are killed. Also killed are 48 company commanders and the entire command of the knights of the Cross. Pope Gregory calls for days of grieving. Ringold changes allegiance to Latvia. [Jelisavcic]

    1236-7 AD Batu and Subudei lead Mongol army against Volga Bolgars, Mongka leads another army against the Polovtsi (Kypchaks). [Jelisavcic]

    1237 AD The battle of Dorogichin. The druzhina of Prince Daniil Romanovich of Galicia, grandson of Kyivan Grand Prince Mstislav Izyaslavich and son of Roman Mstislavich who had crearted the powerful Volyni-Galicia principality, defeats the Livonian knights lead by Magistrate Bruno. [Jelisavcic]

    1237 AD Battle of the River Memel'. The river is a tributary of the Neiman on its lower course near where it empties into Konigsberg bay. A powerful Teutonic fortress was located here. In a bloody battle the Lithuanians defeated the combined forces of the Teutonic and Livonian knights plus units from western Europe and Pskov. [Jelisavcic]

    Yuri II Vsevolodovich (1189 - March 4, 1238) presided over Vladimir-Suzdal at the time of the Mongol invasion of Russia. When the Mongols first approached Russia in 1223, he sent a small unit against them, but it arrived too late to take part in the disastrous Battle of the Kalka River. When the Mongols returned in 1237, Yuri treated their envoys with disdain, and he did not help Ryazan when Batu Khan laid siege to that city. His own capital, however, was the next in line. Yuri's sons were soundly defeated near Kolomna, and Yuri himself could barely escape to Yaroslavl. His wife and all his family died in Vladimir when a church where they had sought refuge from the fire collapsed. Yuri himself was killed on March 4, 1238, in the Battle of the Sit River. [Wikipedia]

    1237-8 AD Batu leads second Mongol invasion to conquer Rus, Cumans (Polovtsi, or Kypchaks) and Crimea -Yurii II Vsyevolodovich , Grand Prince of Vladimir, killed in battle with Mongols as are his two sons. Ryazan captured on 12 Dec 1237, then Moscow, then Vladimir on 8 Feb.[Jelisavcic]

    1238 after week-long siege. Yuri II killed on 4 March on Siti River. One Mongol detachment takes Rostov, Yaroslavl, Kostroma, and Vologda. Another Mongol detachment attacks Peryeyaslavl, Tver, Uglich, Kashin and Torshok. At Tver the son of prince of Novgorod and Peryeyaslavl is killed. Torshok is heavily fortified city and holds out for 2 weeks until 5 March, disrupting the Mongol time table. Kashin is first mentioned in chronicles in this campaign. Mongols spend rest of 1238 regrouping and obtaining more horses in steppe region.[Jelisavcic]

    1238-46 AD Yaroslav II Vsyevolodovich, prince of Peryeyaslavl, and sometime elected prince of Novgorod, who luckily was in Lithuania when the Mongols arrived, elected Grand Prince of Vladimir after death of his brother, Yuri II, at Siti River, in Sonkovski rayon. He dies in Mongolia in 1246. [Jelisavcic]

    1239 AD Monka leads Mongol detachment to conquer Alans and Circassians in north Caucasus region. Batu completes subjugation of Kypchaks except for 40,000 who flee to Hungary. Mongols conquer Tibet. Mongols plunder Sudak, also devastate Theodoro (capital at Mangup-kale) and impose tribute, Tatar capital at Solkhat (Eski-krim), Mongols sack Chernigiv and Pereiaslavl. Chernigiv is defended by Mstislav Glebovich. [Jelisavcic]

    1239 AD The Lithuanians capture Smolensk but are then chased out by Yaroslav. [Jelisavcic]

    1239 AD Aleksandr Yaroslavich (later Nevski) builds wooden palisade fortress on the Shelon' river near Novgorod. Following his marriage to Aleksandra Praskov'ya, daughter of the Polotsk prince Bryachislav at Toropets, Aleksandr returns to Novgorod. He then founds the city, Porkhov on the Shelon' and builds more palisaded fortresses in the region. But Mindovg chases Bryachislav out of Polotsk and places his own son-in-law, Tovtivila, on the throne, thereby taking control of the entire Polotsk region. [Jelisavcic]

    1240 AD Batu's cousin, Mengu, who had already secretly entered the city on reconaissance, sends emissaries to Mikhail Vsyevolodovich who is ruling Kyiv, offering terms. Instead Mikhail has the ambassadors killed, then he and Daniil Romanovich flee the city. Mongol campaign sacks Kyiv in the fall. The Mongol army is spread thin over winter from Caucasus and Crimea to Carpathians. Many Kypchak flee to Hungary where they settle. [Jelisavcic]

    1240 AD Aleksandr Yaroslavich defeats Swedish force led by Earl Birger, who is attempting to block Novgorod's access to the sea, on Neva River, receives name "Nevski". Livonian Knights move to capture Pskov but their allies in the Teutonic Order are diverted by the call from the Duke of Silesia to aid Poland against the Mongols. [Jelisavcic]

    1240 AD The knights of the Order with detachments from the Dutch king and Bishop of Derpt defeat the Pskovian army led by the voyevode Gavrilya Gorislavich and capture the fortress at Izborsk, killing all the local inhabitants. On 16 Sept the German knights aided by Germanophile Pskovian boyars capture the city. Aleksandr Yaroslavich's army is too weak for him to assist. Aleksandr flees Novgorod to Peryeyaslavl. The Novgorodians receive help from Andrei, another son of Yaroslav Vsyevolodovich, but he is unable to stop the German advance.[Jelisavcic]

    1241 AD Mongols resume offensive. Mongol detachment wins battle at Liegnitz (April 9th) over Germans lead by Henrick the Good, where many Teutonic Knights are killed, and main army of Batu and Subudai destroy Hungarians led by King Bela IV at confluence of Tisa and Sajo Rivers on 11 April. Northern detachment turns south from Silesia to move rapidly throught Bohemia and Moravia. Bohemian king Vaclav wins minor skirmish over one Mongol band near Kladsko, but the Mongols are in a hurry to reach Hungary and don't take time to bother with Bohemians. Hungarian king Bela rallies support in Croatia. Emperor Frederick II, Pope Gregory IX, and various western rulers all issue appeals to each other to move against the Mongols, but no one makes a move. [Jelisavcic]

    1241 AD Livonian Knights with support from remaining Teutonic Order begin campaign against Novgorod and capture Pskov. With support of mercenary Lithuanians, Ests and the always-ready-for-a-fight, Livs, they take Kopor'ye and Tesov on the Oredezh River and approach Novgorod. Aleksandr moves around this force and retakes Kopor'ye, hanging traitors amongst the Chud and Vod clans. [Jelisavcic]

    1242 AD Batu receives word of Ogodei's death and starts back toward Mongolia in order to influence next election. Tatar-Mongols again sack Crimea. [Jelisavcic]

    1242 AD Batu establishes khanate of Ulus of Jochi (Great or Kypchak khanate) at Sarai on Volga. [Jelisavcic]

    1242 AD Livonian and Teutonic Knights march against Novgorod. Andrei Yaroslavich is sent by the new grand prince, of Vladimir, Yaroslav II Vsyevolodovich to assist Aleksandr at Novgorod. After liberating Pskov, they meet the Germans at the "Uzmen" at the Vorontei stone and defeat them on 5 April at frozen Lake Peipus (lake Chud). 500 knights are killed and 50 taken prisoner. (estimates vary greatly) At this Prussians revolt. [Jelisavcic]

    1243 AD Batu confirms Yaroslav II Vsyevolodovich as Grand Prince of Vladimir and the yarlik for Kyiv. Yaroslav sends his son, Konstantin, to Sarai where he remained 2 years. Yaroslav is then summoned to the Mongol capital for the election of the new great Khan. [Jelisavcic]


Let me know if you have any questions, corrections or suggestions. sofya@heraldshill.org

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